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SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 



FOR 



THE YEA.R 1885. 



WASHO GTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1886. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMIS- 
SIONERS, 1885. 



MESSAGE 

FROM THE 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 

TRANSMITTING 

The Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners for 1885. 



MARCH 4, 1886. Referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs and ordered to be 

printed. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives : 

I transmit herewith for the information of Congress the seventeenth 
annual report of the Board of Indian Commissioners, for the year 1885, 
submitted to the Secretary of the Interior in pursuance of the act of 
May 17, 1882. 

GROVER CLEVELAND. 

EXECUTIVE MANSION, March 3, 1886. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Washington, February 24, 1886. 

SIR : I have the honor to inclose herewith the annual report of the 
Board of Indian Commissioners for the year 1885, made to this Depart- 
ment in compliance -with the act of May 17, 1882, and to suggest that 
it be transmitted to the Congress for its information. 
Very respectfully, 

L. Q. C. LAMAE, 

Secretary. 
The PRESIDENT. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



WASHINGTON, D. C., February 15, 1886. 

SIR : The Board of Indian Commissioners, appointed by the Presi- 
dent under the act of Congress approved April 10, 1869, have the honor 
to submit their seventeenth annual report. 

The only changes in th Board during the last year have been the 
resignation of Hon. Orange Judd, of Chicago, 111., and the appointment 
of Hon. William H. Morgan, of Nashville, Tenn. 

MEETINGS. 

We have held five meetings since our last report ; the first on May 5, 
1885, in New York, at the time of the awarding of contracts for Indian 
supplies, when the bids, more in number than ever before, were opened 
and read in the presence of the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
Maj. John J. S. Hassler, of the Interior Department, and a great crowd 
of contractors and their friends. The purchasing committee and the 
secretary of our Board remained in consultation with the Commissioner 
and for the inspection of samples of goods and supplies offered until 
the contracts were awarded. A full report of the work done on this 
occasion is given by Commissioner Lyou, chairman of the purchasing 
committee, and will be found in the appendix. Our second meeting 
was held also in New York on the <Sth of August, 1885, the day of the 
funeral of President Grant, when the following minutes and resolutions 
were adopted : 

The Board of Indian Commissioners, organized by General Grant, in 1869, desire to 
place on record their high estimate of the noble character and deeds of the great man 
whose death now fills the nation with mourning. While we bow with submission to 
the wisdom of God in calling him into rest welcome after long and terrible suffering 
we are overwhelmed with a sense of irreparable loss. Like Washington and Lincoln, 
Grant was raised up by God and fitted to be the leader and savior of the nation in its 
supreme crisis of peril. His martial virtues and achievements entitle him to the grat- 
itude of the country, and have won for him world-wide renown as the great military 
genius of the age. His modest yet self-reliant bearing when called to the highest 
civil office, his devotion to duty, his firm defense of national honor, his wisdom and 
intuitive judgment of right, and his promptness in action evinced admiustrative 
abilities rarely equaled, never surpassed. " Let us have peace" was his watchword 
after the bloody work of the sword was done. And while burdened with the cares 
of State, in the most perplexing period of onr history, he did not forget the poor and 
neglected races of our people. To him the freedmeu owe a debt of gratitude for his 
firmness in maintaining their rights as men and American citi/ens. And we desire 
especially to bear testimony to his great services when President in behalf of the In- 
dian. Always honest and truthful and kind of heart, he was indignant at the cruelties 
and wrongs inflicted upon the Indians in our vacillating treatment of them, and he de- 
termined to try a policy of peace and honesty and fair dealing. In his first annual meg- 

5 



6 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

sage, December, 1869, he said, " From the foundation of the Government to the present, 
the management of the original inhabitants of this continent, the Indians, has been the 
subject of embarrassment and expense, and has been attended with continuous robber- 
ies, murders, and wars. * * * From my own experience upon the frontier and in 
Indian countries, I do not hold either legislation or the conduct of the whites who come 
most in contact with the Indians blameless for these hostilities. The past, however, 
cannot be undone, and the question must be met as we now iiml it. / have adopted a 
new policy towards these wards of the nation (they cannot be regarded in any other light 
than as wards), with fair results so far as tried, and which I hope will be attended ulti- 
mately with great success:" 

President Grant steadily adhered to the Indian policy indicated in his first inaugu- 
ral, restated in his first annual message, and reiterated in each of his annual mes- 
sages thereafter. To carry- out these views he organized the Board of Indian Commis- 
sioners and through them sought tbe united help of all the religions bodies of the 
country in earnest efforts to educate and Christianize the Indians and to fit them for 
the rights and duties of citizenship. The result of his policy has been a great reform 
in the management of Indian affairs, the saving of many millions to the national Treas- 
ury, the almost entire cessation of bloodly Indian war's, and good progress of many of 
the tribes towards a civilized life. And when the work shall be completed, and the 
Indians no longer savages but citizens, the services of General Grant in their behalf 
will be remembered as not the least of his noble and patriotic deeds. His relations 
with this Board were of the most friendly character, and we cherish with gratitude 
the memories of his counsel and aid. 

Therefore be it resolved, That we extend to the family of General Grant our heartfelt 
sympathy in their great sorrow and loss, and as a token of our respect we will attend 
the funeral services to be held in this city. 

Resolved, That a copy of this minute and these resolutions be transmitted to Gen- 
eral Grant's family. 

Our third meeting was held October 7, at Mohonk Lake, the residence 
of Commissioner Smiley, who had also invited a large number of ladies 
and gentlemen to meet with us. The conference continued three days 
in earnest discussion of the Indian question. A platform of principles 
was unanimously adopted, and it was resolved that the result should 
be presented to the President of the United States. In 7 accordance with 
this resolution a fourth meeting was called in this city November 9. 

On the 10th the Board and a delegation from the Mohonk con- 
ference had an interview with the President, and received from him 
emphatic assurance of his deep interest in the Indian problem, and his 
wish to know and to do what is best to improve the condition of the 
Indians. The delegation also called upon the Secretary of the Interior, 
who, in reply to General Fisk and others, gave his views quite freely 
as to the policy to be pursued. A full report of the proceedings at 
these meetings and interviews will be found in the appendix. 

Our fifth meeting was held in this city January 14, 1886, which* was 
attended by the secretaries of the religious societies engaged in mission 
work among the Indians, and by many others interested in this work. 
The proceedings of this conference are also fully reported in the ap- 
pendix. 

INSPECTION OF INDIAN SERVICE. 

We have made such inspection of the Indian service as our limited 
means would permit. Last spring our secretary, Commissioner Whittle- 
sey, visited some of the agencies in Northern Dakota, and succeeded 
in adjusting difficulties that had grown up in connection with the in- 
dustrial school at Fort Stevenson. His report is herewith transmitted. 

In May last a committee, consisting ot Commissioners Charlton and 
Smiley, attended the anniversary of the Carlisle Indian Training School 
and made a careful inspection of all the departments of that useful in- 
stitution. Their report, transmitted herewith, exhibits the prosperous 
condition of the school, and furnishes proof, if further proof were needed, 
that Indian education, intellectual and industrial, is no longer an ex- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 7 

periment. That Indians can learn is clearly shown by the 500 scholars 
at Carlisle, the 140 at Hampton, the 240 at Lawrence, Kans., the 190 at 
Forest Grove (now Salem), Oreg., the 120 at Genoa, Nebr., the 150 at 
Chilocco, Ind. T., the 160 at Lincoln, Philadelphia, the 1,200 at Santee, 
Albuquerque, White's, and other mission schools, the 9,000 in Govern 
ment boarding and day schools, all making good progress in elementary 
studies, and acquiring their learning in a strange and difficult language. 
That Indians can work and will work, when rightly trained and directed, 
is seen on the farms'and in the workshops connected with these industrial 
schools, where, as farmers, carpenters, blacksmiths, harness and wagon 
makers, tinsmiths, shoemakers, printers, tailors, and seamstresses th 
are turning out products that stand the test of comparison and compe- 
tition with the products of skilled labor elsewhere. They only need a 
fair chance and the same inducements and necessities that other men 
feel to make them industrious and productive workers. 

What will become of these pupils of our industrial training schools 
when they go back to the Indian reservations is a question of great 
and growing importance. Hitherto the number has not been 
large, and for nearly all so far some suitable employment has been 
found. It has been asserted in some Western papers that when the 
Indian boys and girls O back to their tribes they return to sava 
and the customs of their people ; and this is quoted at the East and even 
in Congress as true. But it. is by no means true. It is made without 
an investigation of the facts. The truth is that of the 259 boys and 
156 girls who have been sent home from Carlisle it is known that a large 
proportion are doing well far better than we ought to expect from the 
surroundings of their homes. Nearly 50 are employed in schools ; others 
fill places of laborers, interpreters, mechanics, and policemen at the 
agencies; others are farming with their parents or on their own account,, 
and several are clerking for traders. Now and then one has gone down 
to low life, but it is a surprise that the number who do that is so few. 
Of the 146 who have returned to their homes after three years at the 
Hampton school two-third s are doing well as teachers, farmers, mechanics, 
and laborers. The condition of many of these returned pupils was 
very carefully investigated last summer by Miss Helen W. Ludlow, one 
of the Hampton teacheis. In her report she says: 

I visited five reservations in Dakota and one in Wisconsin, where were living 73 
returned Indian students, 27 young women and girls, and 46 men and boys, who had 




teachers, employers, and acquaintances. This is the record, good and bad. Of the 73 
four, and only four, " don the blanket." One of these is an epileptic girl, another a 
consumptive boy, wearing the blanket as a white invalid would his dressing-gown. 
The other two are young women who have married in Indian style and gone back to 
Indian life. Four others are reported as " bad, lazy, and troublesome," their influence 
on the wrong side. Nineteen more have not had a continuously good record, but are 
doing fairly well now. Forty -six have done very well indeed, 'some of them remark- 
ably so, constantly since their return, working as they have opportunity, the boys at 
their trade, farming or other manual labor, clerking, or teaching, the girls as teachers 
or assistants in the schools, helping their parents or keeping house for themselves, five 
having married since their return home. P'orty-six out of 73 would it be a bad pro- 
portion for the honor- roll of any white institution of learning ? 

Miss Ludlow adds many interesting details of her visit, showing here 
a Hampton girl transforming the dingy filthy cabin into a neat and 
comfortable dwelling, there another teaching an Indian school with 
dignity and grace ; here a young man supporting his family by his car- 
penter's trade, learned at Hampton, there another building his house, and 



8 KEPOET OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

another on his farm, showing with pride his field of wheat " as good as 
there is in Dakota." 

So far, the record of returned pupils is certainly satisfactory. But now 
we have several other industrial schools fully organized and still more 
projected. The question becomes more urgent, What shall be done with 
all who go out from these schools after their three years' training? All 
the young men cannot be employed about the agencies as clerks, interpre- 
ters, and laborers. All the young women cannot find places as teachers 
and matrons and seamstresses. To force them back to the life of the 
Indian camp, after their taste of civilization and refinement, would be 
the extreme of cruelty and an utter waste of all that has been expended 
for their education. Some provision must be made for them. They 
should have, when they leave school, some reason to hope that by faith- 
ful industry they may earn a decent living and up build a comfortable 
home. For their encouragement we would have a quarter section of land 
selected by the Indian agents or by special agents for every student, and 
when he is ready to occupy it he should have help, either by gift or loan, 
to build a cottage and procure the necessary tools to cultivate his land. 
We can think of no better way of using a portion of the funds appro- 
priated for the support of Indians. Nor can any more useful work be 
done by Indian rights associations and benevolent individuals than 
this work of home building. It has been already begun by the Con- 
necticut and Washington Women's Associations. They have under- 
taken to provide houses and means to begin life for some of the young 
married couples trained at Hampton. They do this by a loan of $300 
or $400 to each family, the loan to be repaid in small yearly installments. 
One such family is settled on the Omaha Reservation, Nebraska. The 
wile, in a letter to Miss Fletcher, describes their condition as follows: 

BANCROFT, NEBR., November 23, 1885. 

MY DEAR FRIEND : We are all well ; we are very busy out here ; Philip he most 
finish our house, two rooms down-stairs and two rooms up stairs and kitchen. Philip 
he building alone by himself and he was so^lilow. I think he going to finish it next 
week ; we have hard time ail this summer ; live in a tent all summer ; it is very hard 
for me. I just hate to live in a tent now ; we live in yet, but our house is most finish it. 
Your friend, 

MINNIE STABLES. 

This simple letter shows the spirit in which one educated couple have 
gone to work. Their home will be an object lesson to their people. It 
will be a welcome resort to others returning from school. Let such 
homes be multiplied and a new social force will be felt on the reserva- 
tion and an impetus given toward a better mode of living throughout 
the tribe. 

One difficulty, however, in the way of doing this good work arises from 
the present condition of most of the reservations. With but few excep- 
tions the land is still held in common, and there is no authority of law 
for giving a title in fee, or even a trust title to any individual Indian 
who may wish to build for himself and his family a home. An allot- 
. rnent may be made, but the Indians have learned by sad experience that a 
mere certificate of allotment is no security; and the young men edu- 
cated at Hampton and Carlisle and other training schools are too 
shrewd to expend labor and money in improving lauds which are not 
their own, and which they are not sure they can even occupy a single 
year. This obstacle to progress c.in be removed by the measures now 
pending in Congress, which provide for 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 9 

LANDS IN SEVERALTY SECURED BY PATENTS, WITH PROTECTED 

TITLES. 

These measures we have advocated and urged many years. In the 
first report of this Board, published in November, 1869, it was said: 

The policy of collecting the Indian tribes upon small reservations seems to be the 
best that can be devised. When upon the reservation they should be taught as soon 
as possible the advantage of individual ownership of property, and should be given 
land in severalty as soon as it is desired by any of them, and the tribal relations should 
be discouraged. The title should be inalienable from the family of the holder for at 
least two or three generations. The civilized tribes now in the Indian Territory should 
be taxed and made citizens of the United States as soon as possible. The treaty 
system should be abandoned, and, as soon as any just method can be devised to accom 
plish it, existing treaties should be abrogated. 

We have reiterated our faith in this policy from year to year, and 
now that the President, the Secretary of the Interior, the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, the Lieutenant-General of the Army, and the common 
sentiment of the people, East and West alike, are substantially united 
in its favor, we have strong hopes of seeing it adopted. 

It is objected by some that the tribal relation and land in common are 
the natural condition of the Indian. So are superstition and sin. But 
that is no reason against trying to improve his condition by instruction 
and \\ise legislation. Nor is it true that all Indians are opposed to in- 
dividual ownership of property. Some tribes, and some men in nearly 
all the tribes, notably the old and lazy chiefs, prefer their present con- 
dition and resist change of any kind. But among the more intelligent 
there has been great progress in the last ten years. They see the in- 
evitable, und are asking for facilities to begin the new mode of life to 
which they must adapt themselves. We have taken pains to learn what 
is the attitude of the various tribes in this matter. In reply to our in- 
quiries we have letters from nearly all the Indian agents, and from 
others well inlormed, and from these we collate the following summary. 

Allotments in severalty are now held by about 6,000* Indians, and of 
these about 1,000* have received and now hold patents from the United 
States. Patents for the Santee Sioux in Nebraska, the Puyallups, in 
Washington Territory, and some others have been ordered and will 
soon be issued. Omitting the five civilized tribes in the Indian Terri- 
tory, whose lauds are patented to the tribes in common, of about L'00,000 
Indians under the charge of sixty agents, not less than 75,000 are asking 
for individual allotments and patents, and nearly all of these are, in the 
opinion of their agents, far enough advanced to receive and care for sepa- 
rate homesteads. To show more specifically the wishes and condition of 
the Indians, we give some extracts from letters on this subject: 

California. Hound Falley Agency : "Probably one-half of the males, heads of fami- 
lies, would like to have allotments and patents. They are fully prepared to receive 
them, and if forced a little, could be made to provide for themselves quite nicely. 
Under the present system of issuing meat and flour, they have conceived the idea 
that the Government is obliged to take care of them, and consequently are very much 
opposed lo work." Tule River Ayeucy : "I think all want allotments and patents. 
They are fitted for them, provided the title be inalienable for .1 period of twenty years. , 
My Indians are able now to take care of themselves, with ;i ii tie assistance for a few 
years in farming implements. They should have no more annuity goods and supplies." 
Mission Indians: "A great many are anxious to own land in severalty." 

Arizona. Pima, Maricopa, and Papayo Agency : These Indians, about eleven thou- 
sand, are all engaged in agriculture and are self-supporting. They are very anxious 
to have secure titles to the lauds which they now occupy by virtue of an executive s 
order only. 

* Reports not complete. 



10 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Xew Mtxico.Mescalero : " All want allotments and patents. It has been the sub- 
ject of discussion at many of the councils with their agent. These Indians are here 
only during the pleasure of the President, and subject to removal at the will of the 
Government. They know this, and this knowledge retards their progress in the arts 
of civilization. Every now and then for the past live years they have been threat- 
ened with removal, which has caused them to feel insecure, and consequently they 
are loth to undertake any permanent improvements. Many of them are fitted for al- 
lotments and all would soon become so/'' 

Indian Territory. Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency: "I believe fully two-thirds of 
these Indians, if not more, are desirous of receiving allotments and patents to land in 
severalty. In addition to these allotments, large areas of good grazing land should 
be reserved for stock-raising and the timber also reserved. Many are fitted for patents, 
and others will speedily become so. No permanent good will result from the present 
system, if it can be called a system. To make the allotment of laud and patents 
therefor a success will necessarily involve an entire change in the present methods, 
and increase largely, for a time, the expense to the Government, but if patiently, 
honestly, and energetically pursued, the Indians can ultimately be made self-support- 
ing, or nearly so. 

Wisconsin. The Indians on Bad River, Red Cliff, Lac Courte d'Oreilles, and Fond 
du Lac reservations "are all anxious to get patents and the majority are fitted for 
them." 

Dakota. The Crow Creek Indians all desire patents for their kinds, and should 
have them, so as to prevent any future effort on the part of land-grabbers to despoil 
them of what remains of their once noble domain." Yankton Agency : " Many of the 
younger Indians engaged in farming would be glad to obtain allotments, and after 
the allotment is fairly started a large majority of those living upon farms will gladly 
avail themselves of the opportunity to obtain evidence of title to their lands. If any 
are fitted for lauds in severalty, then are the Yauktous. At least half of my Indians 
are well advanced in farming, and some of them are as well qualified to guard and 
advance their own personal interests as the ordinary white man." Devil's Lake : "All 
are very desirous to have lands allotted to them and patents therefor. They are fit- 
ted for them." Surveys have been made in part for that purpose. Standing Rock : 
"No allotments have been made here. There has been strong opposition to anything 
of the kind among the Indians of this agency until within the past year, during which 
a marked change in this respect is noticeable, and if the reservation, or settled portion, 
were surveyed, I am of the opinion that many would avail themselves of the privi- 
lege." About the same is true of Fort Berthold Agency. Pine Ridge and Rosebud 'Agen- 
cies : " Many want allotments and patents and are awaiting surveys." 

Montana. Crow Agency : " All appear anxious now to obtain allotments and patents, 
though at first they were suspicious that it was a scheme, thinking that each corner 
stake put up by the surveyor located a white man's 'Tepee.' But now they chase 
me across the fields to get me to locate them and their children. They have probably 
one hundred and twenty five houses already, many of which they erected with their 
own hands." Flathead Agency: "Many Indians would be glad to receive patents for 
their homes. Allotments I could easily arrange here if authorized so to do and to make 
the necessary survey. All or nearly all the Indians OVIM- wh'jm I exercise jurisdiction 
are well fitted to receive and occupy land either allotted or patented to them." 

Idaho. Fort Hall: "Some have asked for patents. They begin to understand the 
worth of property and many are anxious to acquire it. Most of the Shoshone tribe and 
a portion of the Bannocks are titled to receive allotments." Nez Perces : "A great 
majority of the Indians have inclosed and are cultivating lauds ranging from 30 acres 
to 80 acres. I am convinced that this tribe will never be better fitted to take land 
in severalty than it now is. It will prove to be the most important step leading to the 
solution of the Indian problem." 

Nevada. Wextern Shoshone : "All the intelligent Indians have expressed a desire to 
have separate homes. Of the sixty-five families at least over twenty-five are capable 
of taking care of a farm and doing farm work." 

Oregon. Grand Ronde : "All the Indians wish an allotment of at least 160 acres to 
heads of families, and WO acres to single men, and all are greatly desirous to have 
patents for the same. The Indians of this agency are not only fitted to receive patents 
to their lands, but a large majority of them are* fitted to be made citizens." Siletz : 
Many Indians have well-improved farms, live in good dwelling houses, have good 
barns, erected by their own labor, and they greatly desire titles to their lands that 
they may know they will not be disturbed or removed. Giving them titles would be 
a great incentive to plant orchards, and continue to make permanent improvements. 
One-half, and more, are fitted to receive their lands if they are restricted from selling 
for a certain period. Umatllla : "Many are well fitted for allotments, and all as well 
fitted as they ever will be. All the families cultivate farms, and having resided so 
many years among the whites, they are pretty well civilized and well-to-do." Iann 
Springs: " Quite a number of the Indians of this reservation desire allotments and 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 11 

patents, and are well fitted to receive them. It will be necessary to have the land 
surveyed before any allotments cau be properly made." 

Washington Territory. Nisqually and Skokomish : "I have five reservations under my 
charge, all the land of which has been allotted. All that have not patents now are 
exceedingly anxious to get them. All to whom the allotments have been made are 
fitted for them, and nearly all are living on them at the present time, and the ma- 
jority have been living on and improving their farms from three to five years. Tula- 
lip: Two hundred and fifteen patents have been granted to Indians of this agency. 
Seventy have located lands for allotments. They are well fitted for them." The reg- 
ister of lands at Spokane Falls, J. M. Adams writes : "I have been for some five years 
connected with the land office at Yakaina, and I know from conversation with Indians 
that a very large per cent, of them desire to have reservation lands held in severalty, 
and, above all things, to be under the laws of the white men. During the last sum- 
mer I was called upon by a delegation of Yakama Indians, who urged me to inter- 
cede in tlieir behalf in this direction. I think the time has maturely come when all 
Indians in Washington Territory should be given land in severalty." Mr. Arthur I. 
Chapman, employe* of the War Department, writes from Walla Walla : " I have visited 
personally a majority of the Indians on the North Pacific coast, and I know it to be 
their earnest desire to acquire lands and other property over which they can have 
control. When these questions are properly presented to the Indians, they at once 
acquiesce, and if taken hold of now there will be little difficulty in bringing the mat- 
ter to a successful termination." 

The foregoing extracts are sufficient to show how widespread has 
grown the desire among the Indians to acquire individual property 
rights. Further discussion of this subject is presented in a paper by a 
member of this Board on u Land and law as agents in educating In- 
dians," which we heartily indorse and attach to this report. 
Respectfully submitted. 

CLINTON B. FISK. 

WM. H. LYJN. 

ALBERT K. SMILEY. 

WM. McMLOHAEL. 

JOHN K. BOIES. 

WM. T. JUHNSJN. 

MERRILL E. GATES. 

JOHN CHARLTON. 

WM. H. MORGAN. 

E. WHITTLESEY. 

The Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 



LAND AND LAW AS AGENTS IN EDUCATING INDIANS. 



BY MERRILL EDWARDS GATES, LL. D., 

President of Rutgers College, Member U. S. Board of Indian Commissioners. 



WHAT IS AN INDIAN? 

Land and law and education are terms which -convey a sufficiently 
definite meaning to us all. But with reference to the land of the United 
States, before the law of the United States, and regarded as the subject 
of an uninterrupted process ot education, good or bad, at the hands of 
the people of the United States, what is an Indian? What is his legal 
status? Can he be defined in terms satisfactory to Americans who love 
justice and believe in fair play? His copper color, his prominent cheek 
bones, his straight black hair are physical marks easily connoted for 
placing him among the ethnographic groups into which we divide the 
inhabitants of our laud. If we look for the marks by which his legal 
status is to be recognized, they will be found to be quite as striking. 
But we hesitate in attempting to name the anomalous position we have 
given him before the law. He is not a citizen by local birth. He is not 
a foreigner. He is not an alien. He cannot by naturalization become 
a citizen. General Gushing called him a u domestic subject." Daniel 
Webster applies to the Indians an old legal definition, which would de- 
light the heart of many a greedy frontiersman who covets their property. 
He calls them ''perpetual inhabitants with diminutive rights." On the 
whole, the term which has found most favor with those who consider 
the matter is u wards of the Government." 

WARDS OF THE GOVERNMENT. 

To the designingly selfish, this term loosely used seems to indicate 
power on our part to do as we will at present with their land and with 
the Indians themselves. Who shall call on us for a final accounting 
before these u wards" attain their majority ? And do not statistics and 
analogies give ground to hope that before that time shall arrive they 
will die out? With the fair-minded, on the other hand, this term is a 
favorite one from precisely opposite motives. It seems to indicate that 
certain duties toward them rest as obligations upon us. President 
Cleveland voices this feeling when he says in his inaugural address : 

The conscience of the people demands that the Indians within our boundaries shall 
be fairly and honestly treated, as wards of the Government, and their education and 
civilization promoted, with a view to their ultimate citizenship. 

The relation of a man to his wards tests his integrity and his sense of 
honor. If his wards are not in all respects interesting, attractive, or 

13 



14 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

lovable, and have no powerful friends to watch over their interests, the 
relation becomes a nicer test of the guardian. 

It will be the aim of my address to-night to examine with you, in the 
light of this truth, some of our duties to the nation's Indian wards j and 
especially to look at the agency of such land and law as we give them 
or deny them In educating these u wards of the nation." 

LAND AND LAW ARE ACTIVE AGENTS ON THE FRONTIER. 

Land and law I have purposely called agents in this process of edu- 
cating the Indian. They are not mere passive conditions. They are 
living forces, now at work in the solution of the question "What is the 
future of the Indian?" Here in the East we forget how questions of 
land and law lay hold upon the frontiersman. Land is conservative, a 
permanent property, a measure of values, here. Not so in the West. 
There the chief object of every man is to get land, either to hold or as 
a basis for speculation. The value of land fluctuates there at the ca- 
price of the railroad magnates, who, by giving or withholding a station 
or a grain elevator, make or destroy a market, and multiply or divide 
by ten the value of all the land for miles around. There is a fever of 
activity along the frontier, and its most clearly-marked symptom is the 
feverish thirst for land. No man who has not seen it and felt it can 
understand the intense power of this wish for lands in the restless life 
that fringes our unclaimed public domain. To get laud, by hook or by 
crook, seems the one aim of every man you see. The Indian problem, 
ever since it began to be a problem, has been working itself out on an 
area ever shifting westward, with the march of white settlements. Those 
who have studied it have always, found themselves in the din of the 
border life, of laud seizures, new settlements, and the eager strife of the 
frontier. Land has been and is a powerful agent in the education of 
the Indian, then, whether we will it or not, and never a more powerful 
agent than now. Unless we wisely provide land in severalty for the 
Indians within the next five years, the awful pressure of immigration 
and the logic of selfishness unchecked by wise legislation will have left 
no land whatever. 

SOME LAW MUST BE HAD TO SECURE ANY LAND TO THE INDIAN. 

Law, too, works its most striking effects at those formative periods 
when custom and prescription and long occupancy have not settled men's 
rights and titles. Of course the power of law is best discerned by the 
thoughtful in the silent steady reign of law that characterizes and condi- 
tions the society in which we live here at the East. But the unthinking 
are most deeply impressed by the processes of the law as it begins to 
make its power felt in communities where all rights of occupancy 
are comparatively recent, where are found large numbers of adventurers 
and criminals who shun the law, and where appeals to brute force have 
been frequent. The power of law is keenly felt because men have so 
often felt its absence. In such society as this, law is to begin its edu- 
cating influence upon the Indians. And one of the first otlices of law 
for the Indian must be to secure a fair amount of land to the Indian, 
and gradually, but firmly and surely, to teach him that he must use 
that land wisely and thereby prosper, or that if he persistently refuses 
to use it, he must lack, and if he will do no work when he has been 
taught how to work, then he must starve. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 15 

It is but recentty that the land question has begun to press upon us, 
in America. The overflow of people has moved westward and had the 
best lands simply for the taking so freely that they have known nothing 
of the consideration of the rights of former occupants. We have had 
an almost unoccupied continent to take under cultivation. History has 
never before recorded the march of a fully civilized race imo and over 
a continent that was not possessed by another race. The vast migra- 
tions westward of Asiatic and Europen history involved questions of 
joint occupancy, of the right of conquest, and of the local government 
of the conquered. But for purposes of settled cultivation, our continent 
north of Mexico was practically unoccupied. Koaining over thousands 
of square miles to hunt and finh had not given to the Indian tribes any 
such rights in the soil, any such tenure of the land in equity, as comes 
from the cultivation of the soil, or even from the long occupancy of fixed 
tracts for pasturing flocks and herds. When the first period of Indian 
wars that threatened the extermination of the whites had passed, the 
flood of migration flowed westward over a whole continent, checked 
only for a little at the limits of the reservation which had been solemnly 
guaranteed to the Indians from time to time then, after chafing a little 
at the delay, swallowing them up in its onward sweep, and tossing the 
Indians westward again like driftwood on its foremost waves. 

This superabundance of land no longer exists. Men who have seen 
millions of acres given to a railroad and have felt " there's land enough," 
as we begin to approach the limit of the nation's landed largess, grow 
impatient of the possession of any land by the Indian. We have all 
seen the animus of the Oklahoma " boomers," who pass by thousands 
of acres of laud to be had at merely nominal rates land far better than 
that which they seek to wrest from the Indian, and encamping on the 
borders of the forbidden land, defy law and military force, and will do 
nothing but sigh with passionate covetous longing for Kaboth's vine- 
yard, though it does not adjoin their own. Such men waste years in 
lazy protest against the holding of any lauds by Indians. If the Indian 
is to retain any land, he must have more law. 

THE WHITE MAN'S OREED OF LAND AND THE RED MAN'S LACK OF 

LAW. 

Thus we have clearly before us the white man's greed of laud and 
the red man's lack of law. Potent factors in educating the Indians, 
these have been. What have they made of him, so far in his history ? 

It is difficult to say what the Indian was before he was contaminated 
by contact with the whites. This has been the favorite ground of 
romance writers. One hesitates to set foot there. 

SENTIMENT ASIDE, WHAT IS THE INDIAN \ 

Yet we seek for facts, not groundless sentiment; and we may safely 
say that the aboriginal American was not, after all, the uufallen man. 
He had faults and vices. The Saturnian age was not in unbroken sway 
here in America when Indians were the only visitors to these mineral 
springs at Saratoga. The tomahawk, the scalping knife, the torture- 
stake, did not come over in the Mayflower. Not all the vices of the 
Indian camp of to-day can be justly attributed to the example or the 
influence of the whites. It is at least doubtful whether the uucontami- 
uated Indian warrior spent the greater part of his time in romantic 
thoughts about the graves of his fathers certainly he treated very 



16 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

shabbily his living female relatives his wife, his sisters, his daughters. 
We should misjudge him if we deemed him so religiously inclined that 
he spent his days unoccupied in the open air on purpose that he might 
with untutored mind " see God in storm, or hear him in the wind." Too 
often any open-air abstractions that may have seemed to early observers 
to engage him as he lay unoccupied in the summer sunshine ought no 
doubt to be charged in fairness to a trait in his nature which has led to 
the frontiersman's definition of an Indian's idea of perfect bliss " to 
sit on the fence and see the white man mow." 

I remember a certain, dinner party where the host was a gentleman 
who in earlier years had been a most intimate friend of Cooper, the 
great Indian novelist, his companion in frontier life and in European 
travel, the witness of his literary success and jealous of his fame. The 
conversation had turned on Cooper and his novels, when a lady said to 
our host: "Was not a negro servant in Mr. Cooper's family a- famous 
hunter the original of Natty Bumpo, the hero ot the Leatherstocking 
Tales?" u Oh, no," was the quick reply, u he was a pure creation of Mr. 
Cooper's imagination. There never was an actual original for him any 
more than there was for Mr. Cooper's perfect Indians." 

Let us deal with the actual Indian. Too much conceded to the ro- 
mance writers who depict the Indian in elysian tints against elysian 
backgrounds would tend to a powerful revulsion of feeling when one 
visits a western reservation. Designing men are fond of declaiming 
about the contrast between such Indians of romance and the Indian as 
he is. And they make the contrast pitiful on purpose that the minds 
of those who feel the unpleasant jar may be alienated from any serious 
consideration of the actual needs and the unquestioned and most out- 
rageous wrongs of the real Indian. Yet there is no question that the 
Indians of this continent were and are far superior to the savage races 
of most other quarters of the globe. They are well worth saving. Com- 
petent judges who have seen much of both classes regard the average 
Indian as quite the equal in native intelligence and ability of the average 
negro of the Southern plantation. 

A FEW STATISTICS. 

But we base our consideration of the work that land and law are to 
do for the Indian upon facts rather than sentiment. We find ground 
for hope in these facts: 82,000 of the 265,000 Indians have adopted 
citizens' dress; not counting the 60,000 Indians of the five civilized 
tribes, 15,000 houses have been built by them 5 they have under culti- 
vation 230,000 acres of laud, more than an acre for every man, woman, 
and child; they raised last year in round numbers a million bushels of 
corn, nearly as much wheat, half a million bushels of oats and barley, 
and as many bushels of vegetables. Of stock they own 235,000 horses 
and niules, i03,000 head of cattle, 68,000 swine, and over 1,000,000 sheep. 
These figures exclude the products and possession of the 60,000 civilized 
Indians who are now ripe for territorial government and whose pos- 
sessions w r ould more than double these amounts. 

INDIANS ASK FOR LAND IN SEVERALTY. 

These results would be very small, of course, for the same number of 
whites. But they prove conclusively the utter falsehood of the charge 
sometimes made that Indians will not work and cannot farm successfully. 
I give them because they indicate a growing perception on the part of the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 1 7 

Indians of the fact that their future lies along the line of systematic labor 
upon the soil. Again and again as you read the records of negotiation 
with Indians for their repeated removals from the reservations assigned 
them by treaty, you are struck by the eloquent plea of the Indians for 
"land they can call their own, to make a home on it." The demand for 
land to cultivate has been much more constant than our people gen- 
erally have believed. It is pathetic, and provocative of hot indigna- 
tion, too, if a man loves justice, to read the accounts of the breaking up 
by the Government of promising beginnings in a fixed agricultural life. 
And when tribes have been thus torn from the land they had begun to 
cultivate, and our Government in return for lands surrendered has con- 
tracted to pay so many thousands of dollars each year in stock and im- 
proved implements of agriculture, and has year after year broken this 
agreement, it ^tirs the blood to read the petitions. of their chiefs that 
"at least a few hoes" may be sent them to cultivate their farms. As 
we see at how many points in the history of one tribe and another a 
very little direction and assistance, a little wise care for the ignorant, 
yes, even a little common honesty in dealing with the helpless, would 
have civilized whole tribes and saved them from generations of savagery, 
one must blush for his country's good name, and long to do something, 
even at this late day, to help to right such stupendous wrongs. 

This desire for land, this readiness to labor on it, again and again ex- 
pressed in the past, has grown rapidly of late. It is the most promis- 
ing sign of a possible solution of the problem how to secure the Indians 7 
transition from barbarism to civilization. If the wronged, embittered, 
almost despairing Indians of certain tribes are to be lifted, as we believe 
they soon will be, to the plane of hopeful and happy citizenship, it will 
be by this blessed road of labor, under equal laws, and each man on 
land which he holds as his own by a personal title. This conviction, 
growing and welcomed among the Indians themselves, is the most hope- 
ful augury for their future. 

For what ought we to hope as the future of the Indian! What 
should the Indian become ? 

THE INDIAN SHOULD BE A CITIZEN. . 

To this there is one answer and but one. He should become an in- 
telligent citizen of the United States. There is no other " manifest des 
tiny ' ; for any man or any body of men on our domain. To this w< 
stand committed by all the logic of two thousand years of Teutonic and 
Anglo-Saxon history, since Arininius with his sturdy followers 'made a 
stand for liberty against the legions of Rome. Foremost champions of 
that peculiarly Anglo Saxon idea, that supports a strong central gov- 
ernment, moves as a whole, yet protects carefully the local and individ- 
ual freedom of all the parts, we are, as a matter of course, to seek to fit 
the Indians among us as we do all other men for the responsibilities of 
citizenship. And by the stupendous precedent of eight millions of freed- 
men made citizens in a day, we have committed ourselves to the theory 
that the way to fit men for citizenship is to make them citizens. The 
dangers that would beset Indian voters solicited by the demagogue would 
not be greater than those which now attend him unprotected by law, 
the prey of sharpers, and too often the pauperized, ration -fed pensioner 
of our Government, which, when it has paid at all the sums it has 
promised to pay to Indians, has paid them in such a way as to under- 
mine what manhood and self-respect the Indian had. For one, I would 
willingly see the Indians run the risk of being flattered a little by can- 
EC. Ex. 109 2 



18 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

didates for Congress. None of their tribes are destitute of shrewd men 
who would watch the interests of the race. 

DOER OUR POLICY TOWARD INDIANS FAVOR THIS? 

Has our Government in its dealings with the Indians hitherto adopted 
a course of legislation and administration well adapted to build up their 
manhood and make them intelligent, self-supporting citizens'? 

They are the wards of the Government. Is not a guardian's first duty 
so to educate and care for his wards as to make them able to care for 
themselves ? It looks like intended fraud if a guardian persists in such 
management of his wards and such use of their funds intrusted to him 
as in the light of experience clearly unfits them and will always keep 
them unfit for the management of their own affairs and their own prop- 
erty. When a guardian has in his hands funds which belong to his 
wards, funds which have been expressly set apart for the education 
of those wards, funds which from time to time he has publicly professed 
himself to be about to use for that particular end, yet still retains the 
money from yearto year while his wards suffer sadly in the utter lack 
of proper educational facilities, we call his conduct disgraceful an out- 
rage and a crying iniquity. Yet our Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
again and again calls attention to the fact that the Government has 
funds, now amounting to more than $4,000,000., which are by treaty 
due to Indians for educational purposes alone. Who can doubt that a 
comprehensive plan looking to the industrial and the general educa- 
tion of all Indians should be undertaken at once ? I hope that my friend, 
General Armstrong, will speak particularly upon this point this even- 
ing, indicating definitely certain ways in which these overdue funds 
should be paid to the Indians in educational facilities. 

NO! WE PAUPERIZE THEM. 

But it is not merely in neglecting to provide direct means for their 
education that we have been remiss in our duty to the Indians. The 
money and care which our Government has given to the Indians in 
most cases has not been wisely directed to strengthening their man- 
hood, elevating their morals, and fitting them for intelligent citizenship. 
We have massed them upon reservations, fenced off from all intercourse 
with the better whites. We have given them no law to protect them 
against crimes from within the tribe almost none to protect them 
against aggression from without. And above all else we have utterly 
neglected to teach them the value of honest labor. Nay, by rations 
dealt out whether needed or not, we have interfered to suspend the ef- 
ficient teaching by which God leads men to love and honor labor. We 
have taken from them the compelling inspiration that grows out of His 
law, u if a man will not work, neither shall he eat!" Why, if a race in- 
ured to toil were cut off from all intercourse with the outside world, and 
left to roam at large over a vast territory, regularly led by Government 
supplies, how many generations would pass before that race would re- 
vert to barbarism ? 

BY OUR INJUSTICE TOWARD THEM WE DEMORALIZE THEM. 

We have held them at arm's length, cut them off from the teaching- 
power of good example, and given them rations and food to hold them 
in habits of abject laziness. A civilization like ours would soon win 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 19 

upon tbe Indians and bring them rapidly into greater harmony with all 
its ideas if as a nation in our dealings with them we had shown a true 
spirit of humanity, civilization, and Christianity. But such a spirit 
cannot be discerned in the history of our legislation for the Indians or 
our treaties with them. We have never recognized the obligation that 
rests upon us as a dominant, civilize^ people, the strong Government, 
to legislate carefully, honorably, disinterestedly, for these people. We 
boast of the brilliant adaptations of science to practical ends and every- 
day uses as the distinctive mark of American progress. Where are the 
triumphs of social science discernablein the treatment Americans have 
given to this distinctively American question? We have not shown in 
this matter anything approaching that patient study of social conditions 
which England has shown for the uncivilized natives in her domain. The 
great mass of our legislation regarding Indians has had to do with get- 
ting Jand we had promised them into our possession by the promise of 
a price as low as we could fix and yet keep them from making border 
warfare upon us in sheer despair. The time of would-be reformers has 
been occupied too constantly in devising precautions to keep what had 
been appropriated from being stolen before it reached the Indians. And 
when it has reached them it has too often been in the form of annuities 
and rations that keep them physically and morally in the attitude of lazy, 
healthy paupers. We have not seemed to concern ourselves with the 
question, How can we organize, enforce, and sustain institutions and 
habits among the Indians which shall civilize and Christianize them? 
The fine old legend, noblesse oblige, we have forgotten in our broken 
treaties and our shamefully deficient legislation. 

THE WHITE MAN'S GREED OF LAND AND THE INDIAN'S LACK OF LAW. 

The white man's greed of land and the red man's lack of law have 
long prevented the civilization of the Indian. 

Let us recognize this, frankly. We shall gain nothing by shutting 
our eyes to facts. Broken treaties are matters of record. Shuffling 
with the accounts of amounts due to Indians can be shown from the 
books. The shameful instructions issued to special commissioners and 
agents to deceive Indians as to the value of lands the Government 
wished to purchase, and to take by show of force for a few cents an acre 
vast tracts known to be worth from twenty to a hundred times the price 
paid all this is in the letter books and the published reports. The money 
promised but not paid for education and for instruction in farming is 
still in our hands, a foul blot upon the nation's ledger. The broken 
pledges of the United States toward the Indians are so numerous that 
a monotony of shame wearies you at their recital. Let us like honest 
patriots recognize clearly our country's disgrace in this matter, and then 
resolve to do what we can to remove it by our fair treatment of these 
men in the future. 

BROKEN PROMISES DO NOT CIVILIZE. 

Like many another man who loves his country, I once felt inclined to 
believe that the friends of the Indian were guilty of exaggeration when 
they made such sweeping charges. Not long ago a recital of the facts 
was made by that noble woman, Helen Hunt Jackson. (Who shall take 
up that work for the friendless which she would lay down at no other 
behest than that of the messenger who called her to her crowning?) 
The title she chose for her first book upon the Indian question, "A Cen- 



20 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

tnry of Dishonor," I resented, as did many of you, perhaps, as an unjust 
reflection upon our country's good name. But, my friends, we cannot 
change the sad facts of history which that eloquent protest rehearses. 
Let us not try to ignore them. No political adventurer ever broke faith 
with more recklessness than our Government has shown in its violation 
of pledges to the Indians. In the light of history, Charles the First is 
not more clearly guilty of making promises with the deliberate inten- 
tion of gaming a point and then breaking his promise than are we guilty 
of having again and again made false promises, to secure our own self- 
ish ends, in dealing with these wards of the Government. Follow the 
case of any one tribe even of the Sioux, overburdened as they have 
been since 1862 with the terrible stigma of the Minnesota massacre. Fol- 
low the record of deceit, broken promises on the part of the Government, 
delayed payments in damaged goods, unjust accounts rendered, repeated 
removals from their homes, and then see if you can wonder that at last 
the patience of savages was exhausted. The indignant outburst with 
which one of their chieftains met a commissioner who came to renew 
the old promises so often broken, you will understand. If it was unjust 
to the individual addressed, as you follow the record it at least shows 
that the past actions of the Government were appreciated ! As the 
commissioner arose to speak, the Indian chief, stung out of his stoicism 
by the memories of past deceptions, springing to his feet, walked to 
him and cried out, "All the men who come from Washington are liars. 
The bald-headed ones are the worst of all. You are a bald-headed liar! 
I don't want to hear one word from you." 

There is an Indian phrase descriptive of heaven which is sadly sug- 
gestive. They call it " the place where white men lie no more." A 
bitter experience has led them to this. We have the proverb, current 
about May-day, '" Three removes are as bad as a tire!" The Ogallalla 
Sioux have been forced from their homes eight times since 180;]! Yet 
they were reported by the Commissioner at their last resting-place as 
making " simply marvelous progress in civilization." 

It is time that the light of science and the heat of a true philanthropic 
love of the neglected should be brought to a focus upon the Indian 
question. Let the people's love of justice be awakened, and let its 
awakened power be shown in legislation guided by the light of earnest 
thought and the love of man. 

CONDITION OF THE INDIAN BEFORE THE LAW. 

Look at the condition of the Indian to-day before our laws. A quarter 
of a million of our people are utterly without the protection of law. On 
some fifty Indian reservations the United States has solemnly pledged 
itself not to administer justice between Indian and Indian. And this 
pledge with a fidelity rarely discernible in our treatment of Indians, our 
Government has kept! 

"By the intercourse act of 1834, the general laws of the United 
States as to the punishment of crimes committed in any place within 
the sole and exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, except the 
District of Columbia, is extended to the 'Indian country,' but with the 
express proviso that it shall not extend to crimes committed by one 
Indian against the person or property of another." The theory, so far 
as theory governed this act, was that each tribe would preserve order 
and punish crime by its own laws. The fact is that crime on the reser- 
vations goes unpunished. In his last report, the Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs says, "a law is badly wanted for the punishment of crimes 






REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 21 



and offenses amongst Indians themselves." "Outside the five civilized 
tribes in the Indian Territory who have their own legislatures, courts, 
and judicial machinery, arid among whom life and property are as se- 
cure as they are in the States," these are the words of the Oommmis- 
sioner Indians can and do govern themselves well under law when 
they have been taught by missionaries, and by intercourse with the bet- 
ter whites "the Indian"is not answerable to any law for injuries com- 
mitted on one of his own race in the Indian country. The result is that 
the most brutal and unprovoked murders are committed and the mur- 
derer goes unwhipt of justice." 

THIS PUTS A PREMIUM UPON CRIME. 

As an instance, take the notorious case of "Crow Dog," the chief 
who murdered " Spotted Tail " on the Sioux Eeservation in August, 1881. 
The first district court of Dakota, sitting as a United States court, 
held that under peculiar treaty provisions and agreements with the 
Sioux Indians, it had jurisdiction in the case, which was unquestionably 
one of murder, and Crow Dog was tried, convicted, and sentenced. 
Upon petition for writ of habeas corpus and certiorari the United States 
Supreme Court held that the statutory exception was not repealed by 
the treaty ; that the court had no jurisdiction over Indian offenders 
against Indians; that the conviction and sentence were void, and that 
his imprisonment was illegal (ex parte Crow Dog, 109 U. S. Reports, 556). 
Crow -Dog was accordingly released and sent back to the reservation, in 
the language of the agent, " feeling of more importance than the highest 
chief of the nation." We can easily understand what would be the ef- 
fect on the worst elements of the tribe of such an exhibition of the total 
lack of law for Indians. The natural results have followed. 

Last year a difficulty about some horses arose between Spotted Tail, 
a son of the chief whom Crow Dog had murdered, and Chief White 
Thunder, one of the progressive men among the Sioux, who had recently 
induced a number of liis baud to begin farming, and whose influence 
was uniformly for law and peace. Spotted Tail took with him another 
young Indian, went to the camp of White Thunder, and shot him dead. 
The agent summoned the murderers. So bold had they become under 
the influence of Crow Dog's unpunished crime that the two murderers 
at once responded, fearlessly coining to the agent for examination. He 
sent them to Fort Niobrara; but when the report of the case reached 
the Indian Department at Washington, " this Department," says the 
Secretary, ' had no alternative but to relunctantly order the prisoners 
back to the reservation." 

When we remember how shamelessly the United States thus sur- 
renders its high prerogative and proves recreant to its sacred duty of 
maintaining justice and protecting life on these broad expanses of its 
territory, the wonder is that such crimes among the Indians are not far 
more frequent. 

SOMETIMES LAW PUNISHES INDIANS, BUT IT DOES NOT PROTECT THEM. 

But while the Indian on the reservation has in law no protection for 
life or property against other Indians, if a difficulty arises with whites, 
no matter who were the aggressors, the Indian learns to know well the 
power of the law. There are no Indians on the juries that try him. 
The local prejudice against Indians is such that nothing like fairness 
can be expected of juries in the State and Territorial courts. Every 
effort is made by the Indians, on this account, to get cases involving 



22 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

their rights or their alleged crimes tried in the United States courts, 
although this involves long, tedious, and expensive journeys. 

Thus the Indian comes to know law as ''prompt and swift to punish, 
but powerless to protect him." 

When Scott wished to depict in the most striking colors the legal 
favoritism, the lack of justice that disgraced Scotland a hundred and 
fifty years ago, during the bitter party struggles between Whigs and 
Cavaliers, he could in no way make it more glaringly evident than by 
noting the currency of the saying "Show me the man and I'll show you 
the law." 

Yet this most debasing tolerance of favoritism before the law we 
inculcate by example in our doctrines with the Indians. This false 
goddess of justice, blind to the crimes of her favorites and to the rights 
of all others, we set up before, the Indians in the place of that impartial 
administration of justice, that keen regard for the rights of every man, 
which would help to civilize Indians and which thousands of our Anglo- 
Saxon race have died to make real to perpetuate in law and govern- 
ment. 

* But some one may say, "the Indian law is allowed to govern on the 
reservation because certain deeds in our eyes deserving of the severest 
penalities are not by them regarded as criminal ; and the property of 
Indians on the reservation is not protected by law against depredations 
by other Indians of their tribe, because they hold property in common. 
It does not need protection." 

If we suppose that the motives of our legislators have been thus 
kindly considerate of Indian feelings, let us see how the Indian is treated 
when he leaves his reservation. 

JUSTICE CANNOT BE HAD BY AN INDIAN. 

Suppose that an Indian gets some glimpses of the higher planes of 
civilized life, leaves his reservation, formally severs his connection with 
his tribe, settles in a civilized community, and by his industry acquires 
property. Does our law protect him in the enjoyment of it? 

Not at all. Iron Eye, an educated Omaha, made quite a sum of 
money in trade. This he lent to white men, taking their notes. He 
has been defrauded of every cent of it. His debtors have refused to pay 
him, simply because he was an Indian and could not appear in court to 
sue them. Hundreds of Indians have been defrauded in this way. 
Could we more forcibly take away from them all incentives to labor? 
It is not enough that we shut out Indians from the privileges of citizen- 
ship. It is not enough that we say to hundreds of well-educated, honor- 
able men, many of them ministers, lawyers, and physicians of excellent 
celleut education: "You cannot in any way become a citizen of the United 
States, no matter how worthy of citizenship you prove yourself, because 
you are, strictly speaking, a native-born American. "The negroes 
who are your emancipated freedmen are citizens and the door of natural- 
ization is open to any foreigner who will live among us six years, no 
matter how vicious or ignorant he may be ; but it is shut and barred 
against you." This restriction would seem hard enough. But it has not 
been enough to satisfy the hatred which has pursued the Indian in cer- 
tain quarters or to arouse from a calloused indifference the conscience 
of our people. Not content with this, our Government has said lor 
years : 

There is law and justice for every man in our fair land, no matter where he was 
born or what his condition, save only for the Indian. There is no law to protect him ; 
there is only law to punish him. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 23 

An Indian cannot appear in court ; nor can an attorney appear for 
him unless especially ordered so to do by the Indian Department. Nei 
tber citizen nor foreigner nor "infant," the Indian is simply the victim 
of the law. 

Can he safely wait for such tardy protection as he may get from the 
Department, thousands of miles away, and overburdened with the in- 
congruous details which are heaped upon it by the lack of a definite 
Indian policy on the part of our Government? 

Let us see. 

An agent writes to the Indian Department: 

1 knew a most deserving Indian who selected a ranch 100 miles from the reservation 
twelve years ago. He has lived there ever since quietly, has raised seven children, 
has built a house and a corral. Four years ago he went to Santa Fd to get a title to 
his land. He paid some scoundrel $160 for a worthless paper, the man representing 
himself as the United States land agent. I reported these facts, and sent the paper 
the Indian had received from this swindler to your office, but nothing was done. 
That sort of work discourages others who are willing and who have both the de'sire 
and the ability to become independent men. 

Of course the Department could not act in every such case. The 
fault is with the law, or rather the most culpable, lack of law which 
leaves the Indian open to plunder, even offers to sharpers a bid to 
plunder him, by refusing him any recognition in the courts. 

The amendment attached to the last Indian appropriation bill looks 
to the punishment by United States law of all Indians for certain grave 
offenses committed by Indians against one another or against whites. 
But the Indian is still left without the right to appear in the courts, to 
sue in his own name, immediately. He may still be plundered with 
impunity. 

PREJUDICE EXAGGERATES EVIL DEEDS OF INDIANS. 

And more than that, white men are shamefully indifferent to crimes 
committed against Indians, whiie every slightest deviation from abso-> 
lute peacefulness on the part of an Indian* toward whites, no matter 
under what provocation, is telegraphed all over the land as an "out- 
rage" or a " massacre" by Indians. 

In the Associated Press dispatches of August 25 I noticed this item : 

BRUTAL ASSAULT ON A CHIPPEWA CHIEF. 

BRAINERD, MINN., Auyml 25. 

Hole-in-the-Day, the noted Chippewa chief, while on his way to Saint Paul last 
night, was taken from a Northern Pacitic train at a way -station, dragged into the woods, 
and so brutally beaten that lie is not expected to recover. It is supposed to have been 
the work of whisky men, against whom he was going to testify in the Federal court. 

It is whisky that causes nine-tenths of the crimes of violence among 
Indians. All thoughtful men among them recognize this fact. But 
who saw any indignant editorials at this outrage upon a chief who was 
attempting to preserve law and order? Suppose, on the other hand, 
that a noted leader of the whisky ring, a white man, had been taken 
from the train by Indians, even when he had been breaking the laws 
this chief was trying to maintain, and had been treated by Indians as 
white men treated this Indian. You and I know well the kind of out- 
cry against u brutes" and "savages" that would have come from many 
quarters. 

Is there nothing barbarous in the dispatch telegraphed to our news- 
papers three weeks ago : 

The United States troops under Lieutenant came upon the camp of Chief 

Geroniuio, and killed a squaw, three bucks, and a child. 



24 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Put it into plain English and it reads that our troops, surprising the 
camp of this Indian, killed an Indian woman, three half grown boys, 
and a child. If Geronimo, the savage, had come upon the camp of one 
of our officers and had thus slain several members of his family, among 
them a wife and a little child, what a sickening sense of the brutality 
of the savage would have come over us ! Yet one white man who barety 
escaped with his life after a long imprisonment among Indians in a 
border warfare says: 

I cannot blame them much for their atrocities, because I have myself seen their 
children killed in cold blood by whites when they were victorious. 

SO-CALLED "INDIAN UPRISINGS." 

Here is an instance of the class which are often reported as massacres 
by Indians. The facts are from the letter-books of the agent who in- 
vestigated the occurrence, and are reported by Mr. Herbert Welsh : 

A few miles north of the Navajo Reservation a very quarrelsome man 
named Mitchell keeps a trading store. The agent had repeatedly warned 
the Indians to keep away from him, his ugly temper rendering a quarrel 
almost inevitable if one had dealings with him. Last April some of 
the Navajo Indians went to him to trade their clip of wool for goods. 
With a blameworthy disregard of appearances, but merely in jest, an 
Indian pointed an unloaded gun at some of Mitchell's cattle, and then 
at a child, his grandson, standing near the store. Mitchell fired at the 
Indian with his rifle, killing him instantly. He then fired at another 
Indian, some distance away, who was not a party to the act, wounding 
him seriously in the head. Hearing the firing, and knowing well what 
mercy Indian women may expect at such a time, two Indian women who 
had been in MitchelPs house were helped by his wife to escape from the 
back door. As they were climbing the fence in the rear of his house, 
Mitchell fired again at them, but missed them. The only retaliatory act 
of the Indians was the theft of a number of Mitchell's cattle, most of 
which they afterward returned. But how did this incident appear in 
the newspapers all over the land? It was telegraphed as a threatening- 
outbreak on the part of the Navajos, It was a case where the lambs 
had been guilty of disturbing the water below where the wolf was drink- 
ing. Was not the wolf fully justified in making an end of them? If 
they bleat in remonstrance, telegraph it East that the lambs have risen 
to exterminate the defenseless wolves. 

So during the excitement about the Crow Creek Reservation last 
spring, some ten Indians went quietly to the upper end of the reserva- 
tion to cut and sell some firewood, as it had been their custom to do for 
years when their spring planting was done. Straightway inflammatory 
dispatches went out broadcast, like this one from Pierre, Dak. : 

Trouble has commenced in earnest on the Winnebago reservation ; the Indians, claim- 
ing to act under the instruction 'of Agent Gasman, are destroying the property of the 
settlers wherever they can. The latter are preparing organi/ed resistance, and there 
will be some good Indians before long ! As soon as the first shot is fired, trouble will 
commence, and Agent Gasman had better call on the Government or cease aggingthe 
Indians on, for there is a strong feeling against him for turning the savages loose. 

The fact was that as soon as the agent learned that these Indians had 
gone to cut wood, knowing the excited state of the public mind, he 
ordered them to return, although the place where they were cutting 
wood was several miles from the nearest white settlers. The Indians 
obeyed, committing no depredations. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS 25 

" NO GOOD INDIAN BUT A DEAD INDIAN" "KILL THE INDIAN IN 
HIM, AND SAVE THE MANHOOD." 

The threatening phrase in the above disaster, " there will be some 
good Indians before long," I need hardly remind you is an allusion to 
that exquisite flower of the Christian civilization of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, which sums up to the satisfaction of so many men the whole In- 
dian question, the saying, " There is no good Indian but a dead Indian." 
May God forgive the people of our laud the frequency with which this 
shameful sentence has been repeated with a ribald laugh ! It breathes 
the spirit of Cain's answer, "Am I my brother's keeper ?" with the added 
curse of a sneer and a laugh as the blood of our brother cries out against 
us. It is indeed true, as that noble friend of the Indian, H. H., has 
somewhere said, that this mocking and heartless cry has done more to 
raise up friends for the Indians than has any other utterance concern- 
ing them. " Is it possible that this is the cry that voices the attitude 
of a civilized people (who give millions for Christian missions) toward 
the heathen on their own territory?" men have asked. And the noblest 
rejoinder 1 have heard came recently from the staunch hero who is at 
the head of the Carlisle school for Indians, Captain Pratt, who said in 
substance, "We accept the watch-word. There is no good Indian but 
a dead Indian. Let us by education and patient effort kill the Indian 
in him, and save the man." 

If we are to do this, we must give to the Indian fair treatment and 
protection by law. 

GIVE THE INDIAN THE GOSPEL, BUT NOT A " GO.SPEL BASED ON A 
BROKEN DECALOGUE." 

The work of Christian missionaries is ail-important. No one can es- 
timate it more highly than do I. But as a nation we have no right to 
say to the Indians : "We will break our treaties with you, we will with- 
hold the funds that are your due. You shall be the only people on earth 
who may not freely take the broad acres we have wrested from you and 
make yourself a home and become a citizen. We may give you law to 
punish your crimes, but we will give you no law to protect your rights, 
yet you must take all this sweetly at our hands, because we are a 
Christian people, and we will send you more missionaries." 

Away with a hypocrisy that shuts its eyes to the weightier matters of 
law and judgment. Let missionaries be sent, and in greater numbers. 
But there is sound sense and sound theology in the reply recently 
made by a friend of justice to ministers who had resolved that " whafc* 
the Indian needs is not more land but more missionaries." He said, " I 
suppose the Indian's reply would be, 'give me law first, and I will take 
gospel afterwards." "A broken decalogue seems to have been always 
a poor foundation for the gospel to rest upon." 

As a help to killing the Indian in him, and saving and strengthening 
manhood, then, I say send more missionaries, but first give him his rights 
as a man. Let our acts show that we believe in both decalogue and 
gospel. 

Protect the Indian from the white man's greed of land and the red 
man's lack of law. Give him law, such law as the rest of us have. Give 
him land land of his own, for each man. Let use ease to juggle with 
our own conscience and with the Indian's sense of justice by saying, the 
reason why we take your reservation away from you is because it is 



26 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

now worth something. We steal your lands because they have become 
worth stealing, don't you see ! 

Objectively, then, and because of his relations with the whites, the 
Indian needs the educating influence of law such as protects other men 
and of land of his own. And now from the subjective point of view, what 
elements in the Indian problem, what forces at work from within the 
tribe, delay the progress of the Indian toward his ultimate goal, intelli- 
gent Christian citizenship ? 

Two peculiarities which mark the Indian life, if retained, will render 
his progress slow, uncertain and difficult. These are : 

(1) The tribal organization. 

(2) The Indian reservation. 

THE TRIBAL ORGANIZATION MUST BE BROKEN UP. 

I am satisfied that no man can carefully study the Indian question 
without the deepening conviction that these institutions must go if we 
would save the Indian from himself. 

And first, the tribe. Politically it is an anomaly an imperium in 
imperio. Early in our history, when whites were few and Indians were 
relatively numerous and were grouped in tribes with something ap- 
proaching to a rude form of government, it was natural, it was inevitable, 
that we should treat with them as tribes. It would have been hopeless 
for us to attempt to modify their tribal relations. But now the case is 
entirely different. There is hardly one tribe outside the five civilized 
tribes of the Indian Territory which can merit the name of an organized 
society or which discharges the simplest functions of government. Dis 
integration has long been the rule. Individualism, the key-note of our 
socio-political ideas in this century, makes itself felt by sympathetic vi- 
brations even in the rude society of the Indian tribes. There is little of 
the old loyalty to a personal chief as representing a governing authority 
from the Great Spirit. Perhaps there never was so much of this as some 
have fancied among the Indians. Certainly there are few signs of it 
now. A passive acquiescence in the mild leadership of the promising 
son of a former leader, among the peaceable tribes of the southwest, or 
a stormy hailing by the young braves of a new and reckless leader, 
bloodthirsty for a raid upon the whites these are the chief indications 
of the survival of the old spirit. 

Indian chiefs are never law-makers, seldom even in the rudest sense 
law-enforcers. The councils where the chief is chosen are too often blast- 
furnaces of anarchy, liquefying whatever forms of order may have estab- 
lished themselves under a prdecessor. The Indians feel the animus of 
the century. As personal allegiance to a cheiftain and the sense of tribal 
unity wanes, what is taking its place! Literally, nothing. In some 
cases educated but immoral and selfish leaders take advantage of the 
old traditions to acquire influence which they abuse. On the whole, how- 
ever, a rude, savage individuality is developing itself, but not under 
the guidance of law, moral, civil, or religious. 

Surely the intelligence of our nation should devise and enforce a 
remedy for this state of affairs. 

THE SENTIMENTAL VIEW OF THE TRIBE. 

A false sentimental view of the tribal organization commonly presents 
itself to those who look at this question casually. It takes form in such 
objections as this : 

The Indians have a perfect right to bring up their children in the old devotion to 
the tribe and th< i rhief. To require anything else of them is unreasonable. These are 
their ancestral II.MI utions. We have no right to meddle with them. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 27 

The correction for this false view seems to me to come from the study 
of the tribe and its actual effects upon the family and upon the manhood 
of the individual. 

The highest right of man is the right to be a man, with all that this 
involves. The tendency of the tribal organization is constantly to in- 
terfere with and frustrate the attainment of this highest manhood. The 
question whether parents have a right to educate their children to re- 
gard the tribal organization as supreme, brings us at once* to the con- 
sideration of the family. 

And here I find the key to the Indian problem. More than any other 
idea, this consideration of the family and its proper sphere in the civiliz- 
ing of races and in the development of the individual, serves to unlock 
the difficulties which surround legislation for the Indian. 

* THE TRIBE DWARFS AND BLIGHTS THE FAMILY. 

The family is God's unit of society. On the integrity of the family 
depends that of the State. There is no civilization deserving of the 
name where the family is not the unit in civil government. Even the 
extreme advocates of individualism must admit that the highest and 
most perfect personality is developed through those relations which the 
family renders possible and fosters. And from the point of view of land 
and law, students generally are at one with Sir Henry Maine when he 
says, in his latest work : 

I believe I state the inference suggested by all known legal history when I say* 
there can be no material advance in civilization unless landed property is held by 
groups at least as small as families. (Maine, Early History of Institutions, p. 126.) 

IT GUTS THE NERVE OF EFFORT. 

The tribal organization, with its tenure of laud in common, with its 
constant divisions of goods and rations per capita without regard to 
service rendered, cuts the nerve of all that manful effort which political 
economy teaches us proceeds from the desire for wealth. True ideas of 
property with all the civilizing influences that such ideas excite are 
formed only as the tribal relation is outgrown. 

LABOR MAKES MEN MANLY. 

The fact that robbery is said to be almost unknown among Indiana 
within the tribe is largely explained by the fact that property, too, in 
the true sense of the word, is almost unknown. There is an utter bar- 
barism in which property has almost no existence. The tribal organi- 
zation tends to retain men in such barbarism. It is a great step gained 
when you awaken in an Indian the desire for the acquisition of property 
of his own, by his own honest labor. Every honest day's work done 
and paid for is a stroke of missionary work. It not only puts the In- 
dian under silent but powerful pledges to preserve the peace and respect 
law, that so his own property may be safe. It does what is still more 
important. It cultivates in him those qualities the absence of which 
most sadly marks the savage. It cultivates the hahit of looking to the 
future and of seeking to modify the future for one's self by one's own 
efforts. And this habit persevered in develops, along a low plane of ac- 
tion perhaps, but effectively develops that power which is the highest 
prerogative of man as it is the distinctive mark which sets off man from 
the animals he governs will power intelligently and voluntarily exer- 
cised in subjection to law. 



28 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The desire for the acquisition of property is not, as some writers on 
political economy have represented it to be, the sole motive that sways 
society or governs the development of mankind. But it is on the whole 
the mainspring that daily keeps in motion the mechanism of the world's 
daily routine. It is chiefly the affections and interests of family life that 
take out of this desire for gain its debasing element, its utter selfish- 
ness. 

THE TRIBAL SYSTEM PARALYZES LABOR. 

But the tribal system paralyzes at once the desire for property and 
the family life that ennobles that desire. Where the annuities and ra- 
tions that support a tribe are distributed to the industrious and the lazy 
alike, while almost all property is held in common, there cannot be any 
true stimulus to industry. And where the property which, a .deceased 
father has called his own is at the funeral feast distributed to his adult 
relatives, or squandered in prolonged feasting, while no provision what- 
ever is made for the widow or the children, how can the family be per- 
petuated, or the ideal of the permanence and the preciousness of thus 
relation become clear and powerful. Yet this is the custom in by far 
the greater number of the Indian tribes. 

IT PREVENTS ALL ACCUMULATION OF PROPERTY FOR THE BENEFIT 

OF CHILDREN. 

Observation has shown that there is a direct proportion between the 
length of time during which infancy and immaturity are protected, 
trained and cared for by the parents, and the capacity of the race for 
education and advancement on the part of the individual. This law 
holds good among animals and among men. A. well-known American 
author has made this idea of the extended duration of a protected and 
cherished childhood exceedingly prominent in a recent work, and has 
based upon it certain of his prophecies as to the u Destiny of Man." 

Apply this principle to the tribal law which enforces a division of the 
father's property at his decease among his adult relatives. How sadly 
it shortens the period of protected childhood, already too brief! Homer's 
picture of the unfriended, hungry, fatherless child, the sport of the rude, 
neglected of all, is before the eyes constantly on our reservations. Chil- 
dren weazened, prematurely aged, taught by grim necessity to shift for 
themselves with fox-like craft, are even more common on the reserva- 
tion than they are in the worst quarters of our great cities. That pro- 
longed fostering care of children which is essential to civilization can be 
secured only as the family and the home are held sacred. 

A series of questions was propounded in a circular recently issued by 
the Indian Rights Association, for the purpose of taking soundings 
along a course of proposed legislation. While opinions as to many 
points suggested are widely divergent, even diametrically opposed to 
one another, the agents and missionaries who reply are almost unani- 
mous in recommending at once legislation to secure the descent of prop- 
erty to children, to prevent polygamy, and to provide homesteads. You 
see how these points concerning which there is substantial unity, are 
the three points which determine the circle. The family circle should 
be the controlling idea of all legislation and all administrative reform 
in Indian affairs. 

The gravest charge against the tribal organization, then, is that it 
tends to dwarf and blight the family. Tribal relations interfere with 
family grouping, and there is no sound progress in civilization until 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 29 

land begins to be held and property to be accumulated by groups at 
least as small as the family. 

Character, too, is worked out in the relations of the family, first ; then 
in the relations of the larger society, the State. 

THE REIGN OF LAW. 

The problem before us is, how shall we educate these men-children 
into that great conception of the reign of law, moral, civil, and political, 
to which they are now strangers ! Moral convictions are theirs, of 
course. "A good Indian " one whom his fellow tribes-men call good 
" would be recognized as a good man anywhere," says one who has 
passed years among them. But the conception of that reign of law 
which constantly presides over all our thinking and doing, for the most 
part silent, felt only when we attempt to break with it, the growth of cen- 
turies coloring all our conceptions and conditioning our life like the at- 
mosphere we breathe how utterly foreign is all this to the tribal and 
reservation life of the Indian ! We seek to give them this idea, believ- 
ing that the idea of law, clearly apprehended and intelligently and vol- 
untarily obeyed, will work a marvelous transformation in them. It is 
hoped that we may thus do for them in two generations what some 
other barbaric races have been centuries in accomplishing. How are 
we to accustom them to a difference as great as that between obeying 
the order of a chieftain, seen, known, perhaps regarded with affection, 
or blindly conforming to tribal customs they have never seen broken, 
and obedience rendered to an impersonal law, emanating from a source 
thousands of miles away and from an order of things unknown to them? 

As the allegiance to tribe and chieftain is weakened, its place should 
be taken by the sanctities of family life, and an allegiance to the laws 
which grow naturally out of the family ! Lessons in law for the Indian 
should begin with the developing and the preservation, by law, of those 
relations of property and of social intercourse which spring out of and 
protect the family. First of all, he must have 

LAND IN SEVERALTY. 

Land in severalty, on which to make a home for his fam'ily. This 
laud the Government should, where necessary, for a few years hold in 
trust for him or his heirs, inalienable and unchargeable. But it shall be 
his. It shall be patented to him as an individual. He shall hold it by 
what the Indians who have been hunted from reservation to reservation 
pathetically call, in their requests for justice, " a paper-talk from Wash- 
ington, which tells the Indian what land is his so that a white man 
cannot get it away from him." "There is no way of reaching the In- 
dian so good as to show him that he is working for a home. Experience 
shows that there is no incentive so strong as the confidence that by 
long, untiring labor, a man may secure a home for himself an'd his 
family." The Indians are no exception to this rule. There is in this 
consciousness of a family-hearth, of land and a home in prospect as per- 
manently their own, an educating force which at once begins to lift 
these savages out of barbarism and sends them up the steep toward 
civilization, as rapidly as easy divorce laws are sending some sections 
of our country down the slope toward barbaric heathenism f 

CASE OF THE OMAHAS. 

This idea of the family, the highest product of modern civilization, 
yet at the same time the most natural grouping of mankind, is proving. 



30 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

wherever we use it, to be a renovating and healing force for the In- 
dians which surpasses belief. See how Miss Fletcher touched that key, 
in her labors with the Oinahas, by her patient investigations, her com- 
plete registration of all the family groups, and her endowment of each 
home-unit, each family, with its homestead, the land that is to prove 
the stay of the home! And note the quick results! In August, 1882, 
the law for the Omahas was approved. In 1884, the allotments were 
completed, 76,000 acres having been allotted in 954 separate allotments, 
to 1,194 persons, wives receiving their lands with their respective hus- 
bands. Fifty-five thousand acres remain, to be given in trust-patents 
to the children who may be born during the years of trust; for here the 
Government protects the Indian by giving him a patent in trust, the 
land to be inalienable for a term of years. Without some such safeguard, 
chief White Eagle said to Senator Dawes, " my people could not at first 
live among the whites, they would be picked as bare as a plucked bird, 
in six months." These trust-patents protect the Indians until they shall 
have gained some experience in the management of property, and shall 
have had extended over them that protection of the law arid of citizen- 
ship which ihe justice-loving people of our land will not much longer 
refuse them. 

In his report for 1884, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, after 
noting the completion of this allotment, the eagerness of the Indians 
to secure allotments as near as possible to white settlers, for the bene- 
fit of their example as well as to be near the markets, and the growing 
wealth and independence of the Omahas, says : 

I looked with favor on this feeling of independence amongst the Omahas, believing 
that it was inspired by proper motives. 

Therefore, on their request, made in council, I instructed the agent of the Omahas 
to discharge all agency employe's at the Omaha Agency on the 30th day of last Sep- 
tember, except the school employe's and one person who is to remain there to act as- 
physician and farmer and who will look after the interests of the Government and the 
Indians and keep this office informed of the progress of affairs there, and who will be 
retained until his services can be dispensed with. The agent was further instructed 
to turn over to the Omaha councilmen, in trust for the tribe, the mills, shops, dwell- 
ings, school-houses, live stock, and all public property on the Omaha Reservation. 
While this is an experiment, it is believed that it will prove to be successful, and 
that the Omahas will demonstrate the wisdom of the methods now pursued by the 
Department looking to the ultimate civilization and independence of all the Indian 
tribes. 

THE HOMESTEAD AND THE FAMILY CIVILIZE. 

Thus the family and a homestead prove the salvation of those whom 
the tribal organization and the reservation were debasing. It was a 
step in advance when Agent Miles began to issue rations to families in- 
stead of to the headmen of the tribe. Every measure which strengthens 
the family tie and makes clearer the idea of family life, in which selfish 
interests and inclinations are sacrificed for the advantage of the whole 
family, is a powerful influence toward civilization. 

In this way, too, family affection and care for the education and the 
virtue of the young are promoted. Thus such law as is necessary to 
protect virtue, to punish offenses against purity, and to abolish polyg- 
amy, will be welcomed by the Indians. These laws enforced will help 
still further to develop true family feeling. Family feeling growing 
stronger and stronger as all the members of the family work on their 
own homestead for the welfare of the home, will itself incline all toward 
welcoming the reign of law, and will increase the desire of all for 
systematic education. The steadying, educating effect of property will 
take hold upon these improvident children of the West, who have for 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 31 

too long lived as if the injunction, "Take no thought for the morrow," 
in its literal sense, were their only law. 

We must as rapidly as possible break up the tribal organization and 
give them law, with the family and land in several ty as its central idea. 
We must not only give them law, we must force law upon them. We 
must not only offer them education, we must force education upon them. 
Education will come to them by complying with the forme and the re- 
quirements of the law. 

LET INDIANS LEABN LAW BY OBEYING AND EXECUTING LAW. 

The Indian courts already organized in connection with some of the 
agencies have a high educational value. As policemen, as roadmasters, 
as mail carriers, as commissioners to appraise property and set their 
people on the road toward civilization, Indians are already fitting them- 
selves for citizen ship by discharging the duties of citizens. As jurymen, 
as judges, quick to discern the equity of a case, and often detecting at 
once the crucial point by their familiarity with Indian life, where a 
lawyer or a judge less familiar with Indian customs would waste hours 
in the effort, or miss the point altogether^ltn this practical dealing 
with law, as administrative, executive, and even as judicial officers, 
whose decisions are subject to revision, the Indians will be more rapidly 
civilized than by generations of exhortation on the days when they 
might be gathered in abject, huddling crowds, to receive rations as Gov- 
ernment alms. 

This method of educating Indians by land and law will take patience 
and will involve expense. But on the lowest plane, financially, it will 
pay. Every soldier we keep upon the plains costs us about $1,000 a 
year, say the Washington officials. The chief, we might almost say the 
only, demand for their presence there is to watch the Indians. The same 
amount of money systematically spent in the wise effort to control the 
Indian by regard for law from within, instead of compelling him by 
brute force from without, while it would civilize him, would be a saving 
of expense to us. 

It is easy to attack the tribal organization from the political point of 
view, as a petty foreign power tolerated upon our territory in defiance 
of the sovereignty of the United States. Congress in this view of the 
case decided some fourteen years ago no longer to treat with the In- 
dians as tribes. But a far graver objection to the tribal organization 
is that it prevents the development of the family, and shuts out the reign 
of law. These agglomerations of human beings, neither citizens nor 
aliens, regarded by our law neither as independent powers nor as indi- 
vidual persons responsible to our laws, are utterly foreign, not only to 
the spirit of our Government, but to all conceptions of government by 
law. These foreign masses in our body politic must be comminuted, 
broken up into family groups and individuals. Only so can they be 
assimilated into the organic life of our land. And this trituration of the 
tribal mass into a component and homogeneous part of the larger state 
must be accomplished by the agency of law. Put the Indian under law 
at once. Retain the agent and the agency courts as a temporary make- 
shift for a little time, with power to accommodate somewhat to particular 
cases and to the peculiar life of the Indians the strictly impersonal law 
that comes from a source thousands of miles away. But is there not 
much less danger to the best interests of the Indian from a law, strange 
to him, yet on the whole well adapted to the conditions of the territories 
in which he lives, than in the lack of law or in the continuance of that 



32 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

special guardianship which keeps whole tribes in the condition of Gov- 
ernment-fed infants ? Let them have more of protection by law, less of 
enforced infancy. 

Let them learn to walk by walking, although they get some falls. 
There is a vast civilizing power .11 the object teaching of the simpler 
forms of law such as General Milroy has with brilliant success intro- 
duced upon the Yakima Reservation in Washington Territory. The 
transforming power of our legal and political institutions, our educa- 
tional system and our laws, upon certain immigrants who come to our 
shores hardly more civilized that the average Indian, should make us 
hopeful. The children 6f such immigrants are our law-abiding, indus- 
trious citizens. 

THE RESERVATION SYSTEM IS A CRYING EVIL. 

But the children of such immigrants have been brought up in an 
atmosphere of Christian civilization. They have become fully civilized 
by that attrition with civilized men which soonest and most surely leads 
to civilization. The mightiest of all teaching forces is example con- 
stant association with those whom they wish to imitate transforms 
men as does no other process. 

From this all powerful civilizing force, example, we carefully exclude 
the Indians. We herd them by themselves on vast, vacant reserva- 
tions. 

While we profess to desire their civilization, we adopt in the Indian 
reservation the plan which of all possible plans seems most carefully 
designed to preserve the degrading customs and the low moral stand- 
ards of heathen barbarism. Take a barbaric tribe, place them upon a 
vast tract of land from which you carefully exclude all civilized men, 
separate them by hundreds of miles from organized civil society and 
the example of reputable white settlers, and having thus insulated them 
in empty space, doubly insulate them from Christian civilization by sur- 
rounding them with sticky layers of the vilest, most designingly wicked 
men our century knows, the whisky-selling whites and the debased 
half-breeds who infest the fringes of our reservations, men who have 
the vices of the barbarian plus the worst vices of the reckless frontiers- 
man and the city criminal, and then endeavor to incite the electrifying, 
life-giving currents of civilized life to flow through this doubly insulated 
mass. If an Indian now and then gets glimpses of something better 
and seeks to leave this seething mass of in-and-in breeding degradation, 
to live in a civilized community, give him no protection by law and no 
hope of citizenship. If he has won his way as many have done through 
the highest institutions of learning, with honor, tell him that he may 
see many of our largest cities ruled by rings of men, many of whom are 
foreigners by birth, ignorant, worthless, yet naturalized citizens, but 
that he must not hope to vote or to hold office. 

If he says "I will be content to accumulate property, then," tell him, 
"you may do so; but any one who chooses may withhold your wages, 
refuse to pay you money he has borrowed, plunder you as he will, and 
our law gives you no redress." Thus we drive the honest and ambitious 
Indian, as we do the criminals, back to the t-ibe and the reservation; 
and cutting them off from all hopes of bettering themselves while we 
feed their laziness on Government rations, we complain that they are 
not more ambitious and industrious. 

Christian missionaries plunge into these reservations, struggle with 
the mass of evil there, and feeling that bright children can be best edu- 
cated in the atmosphere of civilization, they send to Eastern institutions 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 33 

these Indian children plucked like tire-stained brands from the reser- 
vations. They are brought to our industrial training; schools. The les- 
son taught by the comparison of their photographs when they come and: 
when they go is wonderful. 

The years of contact with ideas and with civilized men and Christian 
women so transform them that their faces shine with a wholly new light, 
for they have indeed u communed with God." They came children ; they 
return young men and young women ; yet they look younger in the face 
than when they came to us. The prematurely aged look of hopeless 
heathenism has given way to that dew of eternal youth which marks 
the difference between the savage and the man who lives in the thoughts 
of an eternal future. 

THE RESERVATION IS A TRAINING CLASS FOR CRIMINALS. 

Yet such is the effect of maintaining our tribal and reservation policy 
that we send back these young men and women not to a life where a 
home and a family could be transformed by their influence, but into this 
tribal mass sodden in the prejudices of centuries of heathenism, where 
they gasp in vain for civilized occupations and example, until the pres- 
sure ot race instincts and the waves of ridicule too often close over their 
better hopes and habits and aspirations as the waves of the ocean close 
over the life-hungry face of a drowning man. No wonder that when 
the Lake Mohonk conference of friends of the Indian called upon Cap- 
tain PratHo speak of the condition of those pupils of the Carlisle school 
who have gone back to the reservations, he arose with a great groan and 
with the exclamation, "That eternal 'go back!' That is the hopeless 
side of efforts at Indian education." 

Why, when we have educated a few dozens or hundreds of these 
children in something like the ways of civilized life, what are they, the 
youngest among so many. We send them back to the reservations. 
But by our infamous treaty stipulations, we are supposed to be bound 
to send back with them all the criminals of the tribe. Suppose the ad- 
vent upon a reservation on the same day of a boy from an Eastern 
school, half abashed before his aged relatives to whom he seems by 
dress, speech, and manner almost a deserter from his race, and of Crow 
Dog, the released murderer, for six mouths a prisoner, constantly 
talked of in the tribe, known to be a criminal deserving of punishment, 
but returning 4 now, bold, blatant, defiant of law and of white men. and 
allowed to run at large in the reservation, horsed and armed, bragging, 
and eager to form a band of reckless young men to follow him in deeds 
of lawlessness. Which of the two, the educated boy or the criminal 
chief, is likely to have the larger crowd of listeners and imitators 
among the young men who have all the savage, lawless instincts of their 
ancestors! 

We are in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Japan has 
opened her ports. China's wall has fallen. But American legislation 
perpetuates these sinks of iniquity, the Indian reservations, where hu- 
man beings are pauperized by unearned and unnecessary rations, and 
are condemned to association with barbarous armed criminals who 
become perforce the heroes and examples of the young. 

BREAK UP THE RESERVATION, BUT PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF THE 

INDIAN. 

Break up the reservation. Its usefulness is past. Treat it as we treat 
the fever-infected hospital when life has so often yielded todisease within 
H. Ex. 109 3 



34 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

its walls that we see clearly the place is in league with the powers of 
death, and the fiat goes forth, " though this was planned as a blessing 
it has proved to be a curse ; away with it ! burn it !" 

SETTLE WHITES AMONG THE INDIANS. 

Guard the rights of the Indian, but for his own good break up his 
reservations. Let in the light of civilization. Plant in alternate sec- 
tions or townships white farmers, who will teach him by example. Be- 
serve all the lands he "needs for the Indian. Give laud by trust-deed in 
severally to each family. 

Among the parts of the reservation to be so assigned to Indians in 
severally retain alternate ranges or townships for white settlers. Let 
only men of such character as a suitable commission would approve be 
allowed to file on these lands. Let especial advantages in price of land, 
and in some cases let a small salary be offered, 'to induce worthy farm- 
ers thus to settle among the Indians as object-teachers of civilization. 
Let the parts of the reservations not needed be sold by the Government 
for the benefit of the Indians, and the money thus realized be used to 
secure this wise intermingling of the right kind of civilized men with 
the Indians. Over all, extend the law of the States and Territories, 
and let Indian and white man stand alike before the law. 

Ft is my firm conviction that a plan of this kind can be devised which 
will meet a response from settlers of the right stamp quickt^- and more 
generous than could be accounted for by the mere money inducements 
offered. 

There is a great mission work to be done by laymen and farmers for 
these Indians. The spirit that settled Kansas in the interest of liberty 
and fair play for all men, however despised, is not yet dead in our land. 
And while I see clearly many difficulties in the way, I believe they can 
all be met in a plan that shall gradually substitute homes and family 
life for the tribal organization ; settlements of mingled whites and In- 
dians for the reservation system ; and the reign of law, with the duties 
and responsibilities of citizenship, for the state of unprotected anarchy 
to which we have hitherto condemned the Indian. 

SUMMARY OF PRINCIPLES AND PROPOSITIONS. 

Some results of our discussion of this subject may be set forth in the 
following propositions : 

(1) The aim of legislation for the Indian should be to make him as 
soon as possible an intelligent, useful citizen. 

(2) To this end his personality must be respected. His individuality 
must be strengthened. 

(3) The rule of law is essential to this. The tribe enforces no law. 
What law shall we give him ? 

(4) The family has always been the true unit of the State, the best 
school for the development of character. Legislation for the Indian 
should begin with the strengthening and purifying of his conception of 
the family. 

(5) That family life may be fostered and protected, and through it 
the individual may be developed into intelligent manhood, the tribal 
relation should be weakened, as soon as possible destroyed. ]S"o more 
of the " imperium in imperial Treat with Indians as families and indi- 
viduals. Extend the law over them as individuals. Give them laud as 
individuals. Punish them as individuals. Give them the right to sue 
immediately. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 35 

(6) The home is the altar of the family. Secure for the Indians titles 
to land for homesteads before it is too late. Give them land in severalty 
with a protected title. Let each family profit by the labors and virtues 
of its members. 

(7) The Indian reservation prevents all these desirable results, insu- 
lates Indians from civilization, cultivates vice, is a domain for lawless- 
ness licensed by the United States. 

(8) The reservation must go, but the rights of the Indians must be 
protected. Where the reservations include more land than the Indians 
need for ample homesteads, the Government, making allotments of the 
best to the Indians in severalty, should open the rest to settlers for the 
benefit of the Indians, using the money thus obtained to promote their 
education and civilization. 

(9) The ideal plan (which I believe to be also a practicable plan) is to 
reserve alternate sections, ranges, or townships among the Indian allot- 
ments for white settlers, of character approved by a philanthropic and 
experienced commission. Offer special inducements to reputable white 
settlers to occupy these farms. Thus " object teaching" in thrifty farm- 
ing will go forward on a large scale. 

(10) A comprehensive, systematic plan of general and industrial ed- 
ucation for all Indians should' be at once entered epon. The four mil- 
lions of money furnished for this end, but long retained in our national 
treasury, is a national disgrace. 

(11) Appropriations for Indians should be rapidly decreased along all 
lines that lead to pauperism, and increased along all lines that tend to- 
ward educated self-support. 

(12) The agent is the pivot of the present system. While it is con- 
tinued the best men who can be obtained should be kept in their 
responsible positions ; and to this end, agents should be far better paid. 

(13) Christian missionaries, teachers, and farmers among the Indians, 
and the awakening of moral though tfuln ess among our people about 
Indian rights are the means to the civilization of the Indian ; proper 
legislation devised and enforced by these must be the method ; and the 
intelligent citizenship of the Indian will be the result. 



APPENDIX. 



A. 

REPORT OF THE PURCHASING COMMITTEE. 

SIR: The purchasing committee of the Board of Indian Commissioners respectfully 
submit their annual report for the year 1885, as follows: 

Sealed proposals for the annuity goods, supplies, and transportation for the Indian 
service were opened and publicly read on the 5th day of May, in compliance with adver- 
tisement from the Indian Bureau at Washington, at the Government warehouse, Nos. 
65 and 67 Wooster street, New York City, in the presence of the Hon. J. D. C. Atkins, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs ; Mr. J. J. S. Hassler, representing the Hon. Secretary of 
the Interior, and the following members of the Board of Indian Commissioners, Gen- 
eral Clinton B Fisk, General E. Whittlesey, Albert K. Smiley, Merrill E. Gates, Will- 
iam McMichael, William T. Johnson, John Charlton, and William H. Lyon. 

A large number of bidders were present, also reporters from the leading city papers. 

The competition among bidders was much greater than at any previous opening of 
bids since the organization of the Board. 

Four hundred and thirty- three bids were received and opened, from which one hun- 
dred and eighty-one contracts were made after a very careful examination of the large 
quantity of samples by Commissioner Atkins, Mr. Hassler, and your committee, assisted 
by the following parties, who were appointed inspectors to examine the articles when 
delivered, and to see that they were equal in every respect to the samples from which the 
awards were made: H. J. Goodwin, for dry goods: A. F. Dohrman, for groceries; A. T. 
Anderson, for clothing; J. T. Faulkner, for hats and caps; G. G. Nason, for boots and 
shoes; E. L. Cooper, for agricultural implements, hardware, &c. ; C. A. Schoiield, for har- 
ness and leather; C. C. Huntington, for hardware delivery; F. A. Judson, for school 
books; E. R. Livermore, for Hour; W. F. Elliott, for medicines. 

A few articles in dry goods, blankets, shawls, and hosiery were rejected by the in- 
spector when delivered as not equal to the samples from which the awards were made. 

The bids for beef for the Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Crow Creek, and Yankton Agencies 
were considered too high and were rejected. Another advertisement calling for bids for 
these agencies, to be opened June 10, resulted in a saving to the Government of nearly 
$38,000. 

The quantity of beef called for seems to increase every year and probably will continue 
to increase until lands in severalty are allotted to the Indians and practical farmers em- 
ployed to instruct them in farming and stock-raising. 

As usual the awards for agricultural implements, farm wagons, household furniture, 
cooking utensils, &c. , were made to Western manufacturers and were inspected and 
shipped by Mr. E. L. Cooper who has served the Government as inspector for many years 
past in a most faithful and satisfactory manner. 

In his report to your committee he says: "That awards were made to manufacturers 
in the following places: Ilion, Auburn, and Seneca Falls, N. Y. ; Toledo, Springfield, 
and Cincinnati, Ohio; Three Rivers and Jackson, Mich.; Chicago, Sterling, Moline, Jol- 
iet, and Quincy, 111.; Burlington, Iowa; Lawrence and Leavenworth, Kans. ; Saint 
Louis and Kansas City, Mo., and Nashville, Tenn., and that he inspected and shipped 
from these places 21,961 packages, consisting of plows, cultivators, mowers, reapers, 
thrashers, farm wagons, wagon fixtures, a great variety of smaller agricultural imple- 
ments, barbed-wire fencing, hardware, wooden ware, stoves, tinware, furniture, school 
desks, window-glass, and many other articles, nearly all of which he found fully up to 
the samples from which the awards were made and that the agricultural machines and 
implements were exceptionally good and the prices in many cases were lower than to 
regular dealers." 

Your committee are pleased to report that the demand for the above-named articles 

has increased during the past yeaV morethan 25 per cent., and in their judgment nothing 

36 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 37 

will lead the adult Indian more directly to civilization than to become familiar with the 
uses of agricultural implements, household furniture, cooking utensils, &c. 

The business at the Government warehouse, Nos. 65 and 67 Wooster street, New York, 
has been much larger the past season than ever before. The number of packages received 
between July 1 and November 21, increased from 30,530 in 1884 to 48,525 in 1885, all 
of which were inspected, weighed, and shipped to the different Indian agencies and not 
one package failed to reach its proper destination. 

Full particulars of all articles purchased, prices paid, and where delivered will be 
found in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (abstract of awards). 

WILLIAM H. LYON, 
Chairman Purchasing Committee. 
Hon. CLINTON B. FISK, 

Chairman of Board Indian Commissioners. 



B. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS CHARLTON AND SMILEY. 

May 9, 1885. 

SIR: In compliance with the vote of the Board, we attended the anniversary of the 
Carslile Training School on the 6th instant. 

Of the large number of Government officials and people of prominence invited by Cap- 
tain Pratt to witness the "sixth annual examination" of the school under his charge a 
few only were present, the majority being prevented by previous engagements. Those 
who were so fortunate as to have the opportunity of attending the examination, and of 
witnessing for themselves the surprising results of systematic, painstaking, and patient 
instruction with apparently the most forbidding and unpromising subjects, will not soon 
forget the impressions produced, nor the new light received. 

After an early breakfast, Captain Pratt proposed to his guests a visit to the several 
workshops connected with the school. Here were found apprentices and employes en- 
gaged in tailoring, shoe-making, harness-making, blacksmithing, carpentering, tinning, 
painting, printing, and baking. Each of these departments was in charge of a master- 
mechanic, who directed the operations of his apprentices and instructed them in their 
work; and better work we have seldom or never seen executed. It is the uniform testi- 
mony of those who have had to do with them that while the negro will acquire an education 
or trade much more rapidly than an Indian, yet there is a wide difference between the 
two races in other respects. While stolidity and indifference appear to be national char- 
acteristics of the latter, vivacity, love of praise and imitation are inseparable from the 
former. Hence, while the Indian is slower to acquire either mechanical or mental knowl- 
edge, he is, nevertheless, more painstaking, more thorough, and much more reliable 
than his dark-skinned brother. 

Some, and indeed most of the work executed by the Indians in the workshops at Car- 
lisle, will compare favorably with work of equal value done by white men anywhere. 
In examining the handiwork of an Indian youth on a set of light harness, we were more 
than confirmed in the above opinion. The shoes made here may possibly lack the delicate 
finish of those made in the manufactories, but there is no question as to their wearing 
qualities. We examined critically the wood and iron- work on a light express wagon in 
course of construction, and were surprised, not only at the excellence of the work, but 
also at the evidences of a desire to excel that were plainly visible. 

The necessity for a new dining-room and laundry was so pressing that Captain Pratt 
conceived the project of erecting a building that would be suitable for these and other 
uses. Having perfected his plans and secured the material, he set his men at work, and 
soon a handsome and commodious structure of two stories one 16 feet and one 12 the 
main building being 125 feet long by 50 feet wide, and a wing 80 by 36 feet occupied a 
place on one side of the campus that seemed to be specially fitted for it. This building, 
well and substantially constructed, largely by Indian labor, and capable of seating 550 
persons, cost in round numbers $8,000, a sum less by one-third than the same work could 
have been done by skilled workmen. The education in this branch of mechanics was 
acquired in the carpenter shop. The tailoring department, in which is manufactured 
all the clothing worn by the boys of the school, was conducted with like efficiency, and 
we were informed by the superintendent that a short time before, when the foreman and 
cutter resigned his position, the work of cutting, fitting, and manufacturing was carried 
on by one of the apprentices with the same regularity, precision, and success as it was 



38 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

under the former manager. A visit to the tin-shop and an examination of the wares was 
all that was needed to convince any one that the Indian apprentice was not very far be- 
hind his more boastful and pretentious white brother. The Morning Star, a handsome 
eight-page monthly journal, a product of the school, is set up and printed on a half- 
medium Gordon press by Indian boys exclusively. This interesting little paper gives a 
summary of the news of the month and all items of interest relating to' the school; and 
to those interested in the physical, moral, and spiritual condition of the Indian we know 
of no better medium by which to learn of them. The bakery, in which a barrel and a 
half of flour is used daily, is conducted by two Indian youths, who do their work thor- 
oughly and satisfactorily. The laundry, and also the department for instructing the 
girls how to make and mend their own garments, were well worth visiting, and in the 
latter room we were shown specimens of needle-work that it would be difficult to im- 
prove on. They seemed to be as familiar with the use of the sewing-machine as their 
teacher. 

It may possibly occur to some one who reads this that we have dwelt needlessly long 
on the' mechanical education of the pupils at this excellent school, but, if so, the only 
apology we have to offer is that in our estimation a good mechanic, one who has a 
thorough knowledge of a useful trade, is of infinitely more value to himself and to the 
community among which he selects his residence than a score of professional men or 
mere laborers. 

Dr. O. G. Given, the physician in charge, kindly conducted us through the hospital, 
which looked to us so inviting that it seemed as if it might be a luxury to be sick a little 
while. The beds and rooms were spotlessly clean, and the ventilation seemed to be per- 
fect. At the time of our visit there were but two boys under treatment. 

Our next objective point was the school, which was divided up into nine departments, 
commencing with the primary and ending Avith the grammar, or most advanced, classes. 
Each room was in charge of a lady teacher, selected for their tact and ability, and who 
appeared to possess the entire confidence and respect of their scholars. The studies con.- 
sisted for the most part in reading, writing, grammar. United States history, geography, 
arithmetic, elementary geometry, and occasionally drawing, the attainments of some of 
the scholars in this regard being simply wonderful. The acquisitions in learning of the 
older boys and girls who have attended the school for three or more years furnish the 
most conclusive evidence of their capability to receive any education that may be given 
to their white brother or sister. They demonstrated that their possibilities for useful- 
ness, not only to themselves, but also to all with whom they may be associated in life, 
are almost limitless, and that the man who conceived the idea that it was infinitely more 
profitable to educate than to exterminate the Indian was a large-hearted philanthropist 
worthy of all praise. 

It is not our purpose at this time or in this connection to eulogize unduly any one at- 
tached to this model school, but we may with propriety say in passing that its present super- 
intendent is, in our opinion, admirably adapted, both by nature and education, to be at 
the head of an institution of this description. We think that Captain Pratt is a strong, 
self-reliant man, capableof governing himself whilehe governs and controls others; a man 
of deep religious convictions, whose daily life exemplifies and illustrates the Golden Rule, 
who has studied the Indian problem in all its phases, and who is doing much to unravel 
it and set right a public sentiment that has been going wrong for centuries. We believe 
that his heart and soul are in the work, and that he engages in it because of his love 
for it. 

The various exercises in the several departments of the school consumed a large portion 
of the forenoon, and before we were aware of it the hour of noon arrived, and an oppor- 
tunity was afforded the visitors to witness the seating at the tables of four hundred 
children, who marched to their places without crowding, hurry, or the slightest sign of 
disorder of any kind. At the tap of a bell in the hands of a lady every head was bowed 
while a clergyman present invoked the Divine blessing on the food. The carving and 
serving were done by two of the larger boys at each table, who seemed to be experts at 
the business. 

The hour fixed for the exercises of the afternoon having arrived, the entire body of 
scholars was marched to the new dining-hall which, had been fitted up with a temporary 
platform and seats not only for the scholars, but also for a large audience as well. After 
all were seated and order restored, Captain Pratt addressed the audience in a few appro- 
priate remarks, in which he thanked the ladies and gentlemen present for their attend- 
ance, and regretted that many to whom he had extended invitations were prevented 
from being there. The iirst piece on the programme ''America " was then announced; 
and had it been our fortune to have listened to the music without seeing who produced 
it it would have been impossible to say whether it was by white or red children. Its 
rendering seemed to us in every way similar to that with which we are all so familiar i 
our public schools. An original ' ' Speech of Welcome, " by Miss Jemima Wheetock,. was; 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 39 

handsomely delivered and enthusiastically received by the audience. This young lady 
has attended school at one of the agencies for some years, and latterly at Carlisle, and a 
more perfect transformation from the original it is scarcely possible to conceive. Here, 
standing before a large audience unabashed, and yet with that modesty that adds so much 
grace to and beautifies her sex, was a fine-looking young woman, who, if she had been 
left to herself and her associations, as thousands like her have been, would be the occu- 
pant of a miserable tepee, begrimed with dirt and smoke, and half-clad, without re- 
spect for herself, and treated by others with but little more consideration than is accorded 
to a domestic .animal. As we looked at her it really seemed that in proportion to the 
receptiveness of her mind for education and culture, so was the reflex action on her per- 
son. Her eyes were windows through which an awakened soul gazed, her face became 
fairer and more attractive, her confidence in her new-found powers developed rapidly, and 
she stood before her audience that day a most forcible illustration of what might be done 
with ten thousand such girls were the men who make our laws only willing to do that 
which they know so well ought to be done for her people and kindred. The next exer- 
cise was by a "primary class in language," eight months in English, consisting of eight 
of the youngest scholars, each of whom showed remarkable proficiency for so short a 
time. " Kindergarten recitation," by eleven of the primary scholars, was next in order, 
and all gave evidence of their familiarity with the principles sought to be inculcated. 
" Class work, ' ' numbers one year's training by nine children from various wild tribes, 
was very interesting, and they acquitted themselves with credit. " Class- work with 
molding-board "first year in geography followed, and the answers given to the many 
questions proved conclusively that those who gave them understood perfectly what they 
were doing. Singing " Harvest Moon," by the school, was admirably rendered. Ex- 
ercises in "fractional reduction," in " elements of geometry, " in " recitation," singing, 
cornet playing, and many other things that we cannot take time to enumerate here, con- 
sumed two of the pleasantest hours we have enjoyed for years and made impressions that 
will not soon be effaced. 

Before closing this hastily written sketch of our visit to this interesting institution, it 
will perhaps interest the reader to know that those of the Indian boys who are appren- 
ticed to learn trades are paid 8 cents for each half-day's work performed. It has been 
found that while this practice of paying them a nominal sum for their labor has a ten- 
dency to stimulate the'm to do better work, it also educates them as to the use and value 
of money, and creates an ambition in them to emulate their white friends, who they 
think always have money. The time of the apprentices is equally divided between the 
workshop and the school; and when we reflect on the rapid proficiency these rude chil- 
dren of the plains have attained, and the possibilities that lie before them in the near 
future, we are amazed at the stupidity, or, rather, criminal negligence, that has character- 
ized the action of our Government ever since it had an existence. How iiot to do seems, 
to be the ruling principle so far as the Indian is concerned. 

In the system adopted at Carlisle, the religious training of the children is by no means 
neglected or overlooked. The " Great Spirit," of whom they had a vague and confused 
idea while in their prairie homes, they are taught to look upon as the Father of us all, a 
kind and loving Being who provides for all our wants and gives His children everything, 
needful for them. They are taught that He is the creator of everything in the universe,, 
and that by His wisdom and power He governs and controls all things. In the daily les- 
sons in the school, in the Sunday : school, and at the chapel services the principles of 
Christianity are inculcated, and practiced largely by a number of the scholars. 

It is a commonly received opinion with many of our best people that the relations of. 
our Government with the Indians is a problem which is very difficult to solve. To us. 
it seems to be very simple. Take the 50,000 Indian children now growing up wild and 
ignorant, give them a plain English education, with an opportunity to learn a trade 
while they are acquiring their education ; give them when they become of legal age their 
lands in severalty, with a prohibitive clause against selling it under a certain number of 
years; give them the right to vote and every right that citizenship carries with it, and 
in less than twenty years from the present the "Indian," as such, will have become 
extinct, obliterated by his own option and transformed into a useful and valuable mem- 
ber of society. We risk nothing in affirming that for less than one-quarter of the money 
now required to keep our army in the West and on the frontier, enough schools like that 
at Carlisle could be established and supported and the result would be accomplished. 
Instead of the annuities now paid by Government, and which involve millions of money, 
we would be receiving from them the fruits of a citizenship second to no other within 
our wide domain. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN CHARLTON. 
ALBERT K. SMILEY. 

Hon. CLIXTON B. FISK, Chairman. 



40 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

C. 
REPORT OF E. WHITTLESEY. 

WASHINGTON, July 3, 1885. 

SIR: Pursuant to your letter of May 26 I left this city on the 13th of June, spent Sun- 
day at Chicago, and proceeded direct by rail to Bismarck, and thence by stage 90 miles 
to Fort Berthold, where I arrived June 18, at noon, and found pleasant quarters with 
Rev. C. L. Hall, missionary of the American Missionary Association. Fort Berthold 
reservation on both sides of the Missouri River contains nearly 3,000,000 of acres, much 
of it rich and fertile, with good water, and along the river abundance of timber and 
lignite coal. On this broad area are about 1,200 Indians, Arickarees, Gros Ventres, and 
Mandans, speaking three distinct languages, but all living in one large village, their 
houses being of all shapes and sizes and built of logs and turf, with dirt roofs and floors. 
They still keep up their old customs of dress and living, their medicine dances and other 
superstitious rites, and have made but little progress toward civilization. They have, 
however, for many years cultivated some land, raising corn, potatoes, and beans, the 
women doing most of the work. And within the last two or three years they have 
gained some new ideas of thrift, and some of the men have shown a disposition to work. 
This year they have about 400 acres in wheat and oats, the land having been fenced and 
plowed and sowed by Indian labor. The crop, if no accident occurs, promises a large 
yield. I saw no better looking wheat in all my journey through Dakota. The entire 
area now under cultivation with growing crops is estimated by the farmer to be about 
1, 000 acres. This will give an abundance of wheat and corn and vegetables for the coming 
year, and as they have a good mill, no more flour need be issued at this agency. 

In addition to the land now cultivated, the Indians are breaking new land. For the 
first time this year some are beginning to move out from the village and to take up sep- 
arate tracts of land. About fifty (50), under direction of the farmers, have made selec- 
tions, and have begun breaking land and building houses. In company with the clerk, 
Mr. Boucher, and the farmer, Mr. Cook, I drove about 20 miles among these allotments 
and saw the Indians at work. To a few of the most deserving Agent Gilford has issued 
oxen. Others have harnessed up their ponies, and the work is well done, just as well 
as that done by white settlers. All this labor with teams is done by men, while the 
hoe in the corn and potato fields is used by the women. They work morning and even- 
ing, spending the middle of the day in their cabins. 

With such a vast tract of good land along both banks of the Missouri where water 
and wood and coal are plenty, there is no reason why these people should not soon be 
self-supporting. June 19th I drove 20 miles to Fort Stevenson to visit the industrial 
boarding school. The site of this old military post is very pleasant, it being near the 
river and having a large tract of excellent land above and below. The buildings are 
old, but with the repairs now made they are comfortable and afford ample room for 300 
scholars. , The facilities in buildings and land are nearly as good as those at Carlisle. 
The disadvantage is that it is far away from civilization and the stimulating example of 
industry. I spent the morning in the school taught by Misses Mary and Lizzie Sleight, 
from Hudson, N. Y. The number of scholars on the roll is 78. One-half attend school 
one day, the other half the next, those out being employed in various kinds of work. 
I think the half-day plan of other similar schools much better. None of these children 
have been in school more than eighteen months, and but few more than a year. Of course 
they are all in primary studies. Some are beginning to read simple sentences, and the 
most advanced work out examples in simple multiplication and division. The school 
was very quiet and orderly, and the rooms were clean. The teaching seemed to be faith- 
fully done. But I think it would be an improvement in this and other primary schools 
to make more use of object lessons and less of books. 

The officers of the school are a superintendent, Mr. Wells, the two teachers above 
named, a matron, Miss Buckbee, a seamstress, Miss Sherwood, a laundress, Mrs. Rogers, 
a cook, and an industrial teacher, Mr. Hincon, who has 45 or 50 acres of land cultivated 
by the larger boys. With the addition of one teacher and a little expense for furniture 
150 scholars could be well cared for. 

But the school will not be successful without harmony between the agent and the su- 
perintendent, which unhappily does not now prevail. Two parties have been formed, 
one led by the agent, the other by the superintendent, and some of the present employes 
of the school side with the agent. Beginning with little matters of difference the ill- 
feeling between these factions has grown to such an extent that there seems to be no 
hope of reconciliation. I listened to the statements made at great length by both par- 
ties, and heard many severe charges and bitter criminations and recriminations which it 
would be unprofitable to repeat and unwise to make public. I also conversed with sev- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 41 

ral disinterested persons, and after careful consideration I came to the conclusion that to 
secure the best interests of the school some changes should be made. If it is to remain 
under the general charge of the agent, who is responsible for all the property and for all 
the supplies issued, then he must have a superintendent to whom he can have entire 
confidence. Such confidence does not now exist. Hence, if the present plan is to con- 
tinue, either the superintendent or agent, or both, must be discharged and all who have 
taken part in the controversj'. 

But in my opinion, a better plan and in this Agent Gifford and Superintendent Wells 
both agree with me would be to make the school independent of the agency; to make 
the superintendent a bonded officer and to hold him accountable for the school property 
and the entire management of its affairs, as at Genoa, Lawrence, and elsewhere. And 
if some man who has had experience in one of the older schools of this kind can be found 
to fill the position, at least until the school is well organized, I think the result would 
be satisfactory. I have therefore recommended that the Secretary of War be requested 
to detail ibr this work Lieut. George Le Roy Brown, now on duty at Fort Abram Lin- 
coln, or Capt. Henry Romeyn, now at Fort Keogh. Both have been connected with the 
school at Hampton, and have done good service there. 

June 20, a herd of cattle, recently contracted for with Joseph Roach, arrived at the 
agency, and I assisted in inspecting and weighing them. Ten yoke of oxen weighed in 
the aggregate 22,755 pounds, or an average of 2.275i pounds per yoke. They were all 
young and well broken. We hitched each yoke to a loaded wagon to try them. We 
also inspected forty-nine cows and heifers and two bulls, and accepted all but two cows 
that were rejected on account of age. The rest were of good stock, though some were 
thin in flesh. This duty done, I had an interview with Dr. Meave, who has been the 
agency physician seven years. His testimony and his monthly reports, which I ex- 
amined, show that the health of the people is generally good, the only prevailing disease 
being due to their bad morals. 

June 21 (Sunday) I attended two services at the mission, under charge of Rev. C. L. 
Hall. Forty were present at the morning and sixty-five at the afternoon service. Mr. 
Hall preached in Arickaree, Gros Ventre, and English. Christianity has not made great 
progre-s here. A few have been reached and a small church organized; but the people 
ling to their heathen superstitions. They know nothing of the Sabbath. I saw as 
many at work in the fields as on any other day. They need not only the teaching of the 
missionary but the example of all the Government employe's to lead them into better 
ways. 

June 22, I visited the day-school under the charge of Mr. Hall, and taught by Miss 
Bechan. The attendance is very irregular, averaging about 25. Mr. Hall has six 
bright girls in his family, and is now enlarging his house to accommodate a larger num- 
ber. For the support of these boarding scholars he receives from the Government some 
assistance. He has an excellent matron and good teachers, and with the increased help 
which is promised by Commissioner Atkins for the coming year the outlook for his 
school is hopeful. 

The same day a large number of chiefs and headmen assembled at the office of the 
agent and wished to have a talk. I listened two hours to their orations. They told 
their story and their wants. They wanted more land, more meat, more oxen, plows, 
harrows, re.ipers, mowers, &c. They made no complaints of their agent, but of the 
trader all complained that his prices were too high. I replied in substance that they 
had too much land, nearly 3,000,000 of acres for 1,200 people, or about 4 square miles 
for every man, woman, and child. They should all select farms and cultivate them, and 
then ask the Government to buy the surplus lands and use the avails to improve their 
homes and educate their children. As to more meat and other supplies, the Great 
Father is very generous now. I could not promise that such supplies would be con- 
tinued long. After giving them a start they would be left to go alone. What they most 
Avanted was steady work; that on this rich land would make them prosperous. As to 
the trader, I made inquiry, and found their complaints just. The prices of common 
goods calico, rice, soap, sugar, &c. are about double the ordinary market prices. The 
business here is almost a monopoly, there being no other trading-post within 30 miles. 

June 23, I left Fort Berthold, went down the Missouri, and reached Bismarck at 10 
a. m., June 24, and proceeded to Jamestown. On the 25th I arrived at Minnewaukan, 
and on the 26th reached Devil's Lake Agency at noon. With Agent Cramsie and his 
wife, who is the interpreter, I drove at once 7 miles to the boarding school of "Our 
Lady of the Seven Dolors," under charge of Father Jerome and seven sisters, grey 
nuns. They have 70 scholars, nearly all quite young. The older boys are taught by 
Mr. Brown. They read well in the third and fourth readers, and in arithmetic the 
most advanced are in fractions. Mr. Brown seems to maintain good discipline, and he 
is very ingenious in te idling useful arts out of school. The younger boys and all the 
girls are taught by Sister Page, a bright young lady and a good teacher! She trains 



42 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

all her scholars in music. One Indian boy plays the organ quite well. The accommo- 
dations for this school are inadequate, the school-rooms being small and poorly furnished 
and the dormitories crowded. Some of the boys are obliged to sleep in the stable-loft 
on the floor. But a new schot)! building, 100 by 35 feet and two stories high, will be fin- 
ished by September 1. This will furnish room for the present school, but not for all the 
children on the reservation. It should be enlarged as soon as possible. I examined 
this building, and am sorry to report that the contractor is not doing his work thoroughly. 
Some of the lumber for flooring and weatherboarding is of poor quality, and the window- 
casings are not fitted to keep out the cold of this Arctic climate. 

The same evening and the next day, June 27, I made a pretty thorough survey of 
the reservation, riding 40 or 50 miles among the Indian farms. These Indians are Wah- 
peton Sioux, kindred to the Sisseton apd the Santee Sioux, and have made about the 
same progress. They have a fine reservation, secured by treaty, on the south shore of 
Devil's Lake, or Minnewaukan, containing about 366 square miles, of which 36 square 
miles are set apart as a military reservation, on which is Fort Totten. Near the lake 
are some rocky hills and sufficient oak timber. The larger part, about two-thirds, is rich 
prairie suitable for cultivation. The Indians are scattered widely over the reservation, 
living on or near their farms, about 250 of which are under cultivation, containing from 
10 to 50 acres each, mostly in wheat. The crops look well, and the farmers are so en- 
couraged that they are breaking new land to enlarge their fields. They own mowers and 
reapers, having purchased seven new self-binders this year. They also own good oxen 
and horses, and are self-supporting. No rations are issued except to the sick and to aged 
paupers. I saw no Indians loafing about the agency office; none wearing the blanket; 
only one, an old woman, with a painted face. The dances have been stopped and polygamy 
nearly abolished. Their lands are now being surveyed; they will soon be allotted to 
those who cultivate them, and patented when the Coke bill shall pass. Then, with a 
little help in lumber and skilled labor, they can build better houses and live as well as 
their neighbors. They will need for a few years an intelligent farmer to direct and help 
in the use and care of their machinery. They can plow and sow as well as anybody; but 
they cannot yet put together and handle with skill the mewers and self-binders. 

Agent Cramsie appears to be doing good service. He is firm and decided in govern- 
ment and earnest in urging all to industry. He has greatly improved the agency build- 
ings, having constructed new stables, carpenter and blacksmith shops, and a bakery, be- 
sides repairing the agent's dwelling and building a new house for employes. 

The immediate wants of these Indians are the continued service of the farmer, who is a 
capable man, a grant of lumber, say $1,000 worth, to roof and floor their log houses, a 
few hundred dollars to employ carpenters to do the work, some stock cattle, and an ad- 
dition to the school-house. 

June 28th I attended the Mission Church service, conducted by Father Jerome, who 
preached a plain, sensible sermon first in Dakota, then in English. He was assisted 
in the service by a choir of Indian boys and girls, who rendered excellent music. 

Leaving late at night, I returned direct to Washington, arriving July 1. 
Very respectfully, 

E. WHITTLESEY, Secretary. 

Hon. CLINTON B. FISK, Chairman. 



D. 

REPORTS OF RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 

The expenditures by the several religious societies during the last year for Indian 
education and missions, so far as reported, are as follows: 

Baptist Home Mission Board $29.97:2 16 

Baptist Southern Mission Board ... . 14, 065 12 

Congregational American Missionary Association 31,8:25 (i:> 

Episcopal Mission Board 1 1 __ 49,77381 

Friends Missionary Societies 12,1*28 00 

Menonite Church Mission ' 6, 225 49 

Methodist Missionary Society 6,000 00 

Presbyterian Foreign Mission Hoard 32, 224 55 

Presbyterian Home Mission Board '. 62,000 00 

Presbyterian Southern Mission Board 6, 740 00 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 43 
AMERICAN BAPTIST HOME MISSION SOCIETY. 

* THE INDIANS. 

In the Indian Territory the prospects are bright. General Missionary Rogers states^ 
that the development of the missionary spirit in the churches, for the evangelization of 
the wild tribes, has been exceedingly gratifying. At the general convention of the 
Baptists, last June, a missionary was appointed to labor among the Western tribes. 
The Cherokees have raised their proportion, and it is understood that the Creeks, Choc- 
taws, Chickasaws, and Delawares will not be lacking in theirs. This is a new era in 
our work, when the Indians themselves have reached the point where they engage in 
missionary undertakings for their pagan kin. U-yu-sa-da and John Walkingstick, two 
excellent preachers, have died within the year. Their places should be supplied, if not 
with native, then with white ministers. The latter course, however, seems impossible 
in the society's present circumstances. Three ministerial students from the "Indian 
University" labored under our appointment last summer, and were instrumental in 
the conversion of a goodly number to Christ. 

At the Sac and Fox Agency our native missionary has the commendation of thos& 
connected with the agency, and is evidently making an impression on many Indians 
who, at first, were utterly averse to the gospel and its messenger. 

In Nevada progress is slow. The Indians, however, have kept their promise to adopt 
the civilized mode of burial, if the remains of the beloved Agent Spencer were buried 
there. 

Alaska is yet untouched by us. The opportune moment for entering Alaska has 
come. Congress, for the first time, has appropriated $25,000 for educational purposes 
in that Territory, and the honorable Commissioner of Education, himself a Christian 
gentleman, is prepared to appropriate a moderate amount for the support of a teacher 
whom the society may appoint to Alaska, and who, in connection with his teaching, 
may engage in missionary service. The location of the mission has not been definitely 
determined, but the probability is that it will be at the Kodiak Islands, about 500- 
miles northwesterly of Sitka, and 1,500 miles from San Francisco, the point of depart- 
ure for Kodiak. 

As yet the man for this work has not been found. He must be a man of strong faith 
in God, and able to endure deprivations equal to those of any mission field on the 
globe. 

The new building for the Indian University, near Muskogee, Indian Territory, is 
also completed and is to be dedicated early in June. It is of stone and brick, 44 feet 
wide, 109 long, and three stories high, above a fine basement that will be used for 
culinary and other purposes. Its cost is about $24,000. It will be known as " Rocke- 
feller Hall," in honor of J. D. Rockefeller, esq., who has given $9,000 toward its- 
erection. Probably never again will so many principal structures for these institutions- 
be erected in one year. 

The report of the committee upon "missionary work among the Indians" was pre- 
sented by Rev. Dr. J. W. Carter, West Virginia. 

MISSIONS AMONG INDIANS. 

As the result of recent and careful estimates, it is stated that the Indians in the United 
States number about 320,000, including 15,000 in Alaska. The many tribes into which 
they are divided speak different dialects, and sometimes engage in bloody hostilities. 
That the Indians are surely wasting away before the steady march of civilization and are- 
doomed to tot^l extinction has been the popular idea for many years. But this theory 
is now rudely shaken, if not utterly overthrown. Facts show that while some tribes- 
have decayed others have increased. Some of the best informed students of the^question 
insist that the Indians of our country are holding theirown in number, and are destined 
to form a permanent element of our population. 

We rejoice that as a people their prospects have greatly iinproved. The Indian policy 
of our Government has not reached perfection, but it is better than it was formerly, and 
other changes which time and effort will secure will probably bring it into harmony withr 
the teachings and spirit of righteousness. There is an evident quickening of the Amer- 
ican conscience upon the subject of our relations to these feeble tribes. The time has 
come when millions of our people acknowledge that Indians have rights which white 
men are bound to respect, and demand that public and private pledges to them shall be 
sacredly kept. In recent instances their title to lands guaranteed to them by solemn 
treaties has been honestly enforced. We have learned that it is cheaper and manlier to- 
Christianize and civilize them than to wage eternal war against them for the benefit of 



44 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

frontier traders and liquor sellers. But much yet remains to be done. Perhaps about 
one-third of the Indians in the United States have made decided advances in civilization. 
They build houses, cultivate the soil, support churches and schools, and have adopted 
the dress and many of the customs of their white neighbors. But there are still 200.000 
or more of our Indian population who, if not in a state of utter savagery, have made but 
slight progress in the arts and industries of civilized society. They live and worship as 
did their fathers, and are heathens in a land of Bibles and churches. Surely it is our 
duty to preach the gospel to these disinherited heirs of this vast continent. 

But we fear that our denomination is not doing all that is required of us in this direc- 
tion. The facts, so far as your committee has been able to gather them, seem to compel 
the conclusion that the Indian members of Baptist churches do not exceed 5,000 in num- 
ber. Neglected tribes need teachers and preachers, and promising fields ask in vain for 
help. Many open doors are not entered because the pressure upon our missionary treas- 
ury is so severe. 

During the past year the Home Mission Society has done all that was possible with 
the resources at its command to meet these calls for gospel labor; and the Lord of the 
harvest has crowned the toils and sacrifices of his servants with his blessing. It gives 
us profound pleasure to report that the Baptists ol the Indian Territory, representing 
<lifferent tribes, have organized for missionary work, and are sending the gospel of Christ 
to their pagan kindred. We also hope that the call which came years ago from the 
tribes of Alaska is about to be answered in the establishment of a mission in that far-off 
Territory. But the most favorable view that can be taken of the subject must remind 
us that greater efforts, more laborers, and larger contributions are specially needed. May 
God help us to enable the society to do more for the Indians. 

The work of our Indian University at Tahlequah is growing in importance and inter- 
est. Thirteen of its pupils are students for the ministry, and some of them expect to 
seek the advantages of Eastern theological seminaries. This prosperous school is soon 
to be removed to Muskogee, where it will have better accommodations and larger op- 
portunities. Its field of usefulness is wide, and its future is bright with promise. In 
the judgment of your committee the Government ought to be just and kindly in its 
treatment of the Indians, and American Christians ought to pray earnestly, give liber- 
ally, and labor faithfully for the salvation of a people who have been driven from the 
homes of their ancestors and compelled to endure centuries of wrong. The work of giv- 
ing them the gospel is pressed upon us by justice, humanity, and patriotism, as well as 
'by obligations to Christ and his kingdom. 



SOUTHERN BAPTIST HOME MISSION BOARD. 

The Indian Mission Department, transferred to the Domestic Board in 18.15, is worthy 
of special narative did time permit. It has accomplished more for the reclamation from 
barbarism and the civilization of the Indian tribes than all the forces of the United States 
Government had effected in a century. The gospel has proved mightier than gunpowder 
in changing savages into reputable citizens. 

In 1861 there were in connection with our board thirteen missionaries, white and 
native, and over three thousand communicants. 

After the war the work among the Indians was resumed in their desolated territory, 
and has been very successfully prosecuted in the evangelization and education of the 
tribes, until the Indians are certainly at least as well fitted for intelligent voting citizen- 
ship as any portion of the African race among us. 

Missionary service has under God's blessing wrought these marvelous changes in our 
own days and under our own eyes. 

Our mission work among the Indians has been highly prospered during the year. There 
have been many baptisms and restorations to the churches. The Levering school has 
been overflowing all the year. This is due to the admirable management of the super- 
intendent, Maj. I. G. Vore. No words of commendation would be too strong in connec- 
tion with the services of tins-officer. His sound judgment, his thorough knowledge of 
business, his long acquaintance with the Indians, their unbounded confidence in him 
and his deep interest in their welfare, render him of all men the most fitting for such a 
position. 

During the year the efforts of the Board to arouse a spirit of missions among the peo- 
ple have began to bear fruit. The two associations, that of the Creeks and that of the 
Choctaw and Chickasaw churches, have united to support a missionary among the wild 
tribes, while the Creeks have appointed Brother James Colbert as a missionary in their 
own bounds. In the j ud^meut of the Board the time has come to change its plan of work 
-among these people. While \ve encourage schools, especially those that teach the arts of 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS 45 

civilized life, and thus prepare the young to become teachers of others in these things, 
we must throw more of the responsibility of the support of the native ministry upon th& 
churches. The white missionaries must turn their thoughts more and more to the in- 
struction of the native preachers and aid them in developing the piety and activity of 
the churches. 

J. D. Stewart, Georgia, presented the following, which, after remarks by him and J. 
L. Burrows, Virginia, was adopted: 

44 For many years mission work among the American Indians has been prosecuted with 
marked success. Hundreds of happy conversions, and the foundation of churches and 
associations, stamp this work with the seal of Divine approbation. Many native preachers 
have been called and sent forth to declare the glad tidings of salvation. In view of the 
work that has been accomplished and considering the present needs of this field of Chris- 
tian labor 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that the Home Mission Board, so 
soon as the means at their command will justify the same, appoint one whose duty it 
shall be to hold religious institutes, in which Indian preachers and deacons are to receive 
instruction in the word of God as understood and taught by our denomination. 

"Resolved, That in giving such instruction the churches be urged to use every possible 
effort by an enlarged benevolence to become self-sustaining; that they strive to raise suf- 
ficient means to support their own pastors and to raise mission funds to send the word of 
God to the wild tribes of their own people. ' ' 



CONGREGATIONAL AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION. 

WORK AMONG THE INDIANS. 

Churches 5 

Members 301 

Ministers 7 

Schools 15 

Teachers 53 

Pupils 706 

Sunday-school scholars _ 776- 

Our Indian work is chiefly in Nebraska and Dakota, among the great Sioux nation, 
that numbers about 60,000, and the tribes that mingle with, or are located around them. 
We have three main stations, Santee, Oahe, and Fort Berthold, all situated on the Mis- 
souri River, and at points strategic for pushing missions out among the people. 

Santee. Here is planted the Santee Normal School, under the care of Rev. A. L.. 
Riggs. This institution, pioneer of its kind, began work for the higher training of In- 
dian pupils fifteen years ago. Its history and experience show the great advancement 
that has been made by the Indian mind. At first the pupils came as to a sort of picnic, 
and expected to slip out when the fun stopped. But now the discipline, attendance, 
and class work are of a high order and will compare favorably with schools of similar 
grade elsewhere. One thing quite noteworthy about Santee is that while it is often im- 
possible to fill the desired quota of girls for other schools, applications at Santee from 
girls and young women far exceed the ability to receive them. This school, with its 177 
pupils busily engaged in their studies under the instruction of an able corps of teachers, 
in possession of buildings that are up to the times in all their equipments, reaching by 
its influence every Indian village of the great empire of the Missouri River basin, is an 
institution from which, with God's blessing upon its work, we have a right to expect 
great things in the future. 

Pilgrim Church, under the joint pastorate of Rev. Artemas Ehnamani and Rev. A. 
L. Riggs, honors the faith and polity of the Pilgrim Fathers in its co-operation with the 
school, nurturing and extending the cause of Christian education. Its roll numbers 164 
names, and its Sabbath-school reports an attendance of 183. 

Great and urgent fields inviting missionary occupancy lie all around Santee. The 
Rosebud camp, of between six and seven thousand Indians, under the pressure of ne- 
cessity, is beginning to break up. Swift Bear's colony, numbering sixteen families, an 
offshoot from Rosebud Agency, has located along the Niobrara. Others are coming down 
this fall as soon as their little crops are harvested. All the land on the north side of 
the Niobrara, 20 miles east of the mouth of the Keyapaha, and much of the land on the 
Ponca Creek, close by, is now taken. Here has just been built a school-house given by 
Deacon Burrill, of Oberlin, Ohio, a little building of two rooms, one for the teacher's 



46 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

residence and the other for the school-room and chapel. A son of Pastor Ehnaraani, of 
the Santee church, is to take charge of this station. 

Among the Poncas, since last December, we have had a missionary, Rev. J. E. Smith, 
who, while maintaining Sabbath services with good attendance, has during the week 
taught a Government school. At the Upper Ponca settlement, during the months of 
February and March, a mission day-school was kept by Albert Frazier, a native teacher. 

Oakc. This mission, with its out-stations, is in charge of Rev. T. L. Riggs. By reason 
of the illness of Miss Collins and the absence of Mr. Riggs, who, with Stephen Yellow 
Hawk and Rev. Charles W. Shelton, made a campaign at the East in behalf of Indian 
missions, this mission in the early part of the winter suffered somewhat, The native 
helpers are Titus Jugg, a young man with family, of earnest missionary spirit, and Eliz- 
abeth Winjan, a woman advanced in years, a most faithful teacher in school, as well as 
by her daily life, both stationed on the Cheyenne; William Lee, David Lee, Samuel 
Smiley, and Stephen Yellow Hawk, thirteen years ago low savages and superstitio'us 
heathen, but to-day, by the grace of God, clean, industrious, kind-hearted Christian men. 
Rev. Isaac Renville, grandson of Joseph Renville, who so- effectively assisted the early 
missionaries in the translation of John and other Scriptures, supported by the Native 
Missionary Society, occupies a building of the A. M. A. on the Cheyenne, where he has 
kept a small school and maintained Sabbath services. Farther up the river, ' ' The Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel" supports two native missionaries. These brethren 
have heartily co-operated with Mr. Riggs and the other A. M. A. workers. On the Grand 
River, Standing Rock Agency, we have Edwin Phelps, a young man of remarkable force, 
a good teacher, a good musician, and a good missionary. The Government agent speaks 
very highly of him and of his work. All these native helpers, with one exception, are 
full-blood Dakota Indians. 

The Indians of the Rosebud Agency on the White River have long be^n calling for 
missionaries to be sent among them. The Park Street church, Boston, has given $400 
to open a mission in that needy region, and Mr. Riggs expects to have a well-established 
out-station on the White River before the beginning of the coming winter. 

During the year a movement has been made to establish an industrial school at Oahe. 
The Indian Bureau gave twenty scholarships. Alonzo Trask, esq., executor in the Mas- 
quand estate, gave $1,500 toward a building, on condition that an additional $1,500 be 
raised. This additional amount Mr. Riggs secured. The beginning of the school was 
made in January. Twelve scholars were all that could be accommodated. They were 
promptly secured. The school has been continued by the exercise of strictest economy 
and the willing self-sacrifices of all concerned. The experiment has proved a success, 
and a good beginning has been made for another year. The new building is now about, 
if not quite, ready, and fitted to receive forty scholars. 

The church at Oahe bears the significant name of Shiloh. A place of rest it has proved 
to many a weary soul yet of rest only as it has prepared for activity. During the year 
God has been pleased to manifest His grace in saving power. Seventeen new members 
have been received on profession of their faith and three by letter. The total member- 
ship is 54. The greater part of these are young men and women, not more than half 
being over thirty years of age, and not more than five being past forty-five years. This 
church enjoys the ministrations of Stephen Yellow Hawk and David Lee. 

Fort Berthold. This point, with the territory adjacent, is held by Rev. C. L. Hall. 
The day-school has had 129 pupils during the year. Six of the Indian girls have been taken 
into the teachers' home with marked benefit to the mission work. Increased interest 
has been manifested in the church services, the average attendance being 75. At Fort 
Stevenson a Government school (75 pupils) has been kept by Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Wells. 
Religious meetings have been held fortnightly on Thursday evening and Sabbath-school 
each Sunday. The Crow agency, after waiting two years, is still begging for us to send a 
missionary. 

The Indians around Fort Berthold are making gratifying progress in farming. They 
have added 200 acres of grain to last year's crops. A large part of the people have 
broken away from their old villages and settled on quarter-sections of laud 30 miles up 
and down the Missouri, building houses and breaking land for next year's crops. 

Skokomish Agency. Striking westward about 1,000 miles, we come to Skokomish 
Agency, Washington Territory, where Rev. Myron Eells stands almost alone to repre- 
sent the. interest our demonination takes in the salvation of the Indians of that region. 
At Skokomish he has a church of 46 members; at Dunginess a church of 28 members, 
where he spends two Sabbaths and the intervening week each month ; and at Squakson, 
a small reservation formerly in charge of the Presbyterians, who have now withdrawn, 
he conducts public worship once a month. In these three places he has under his pas- 
toral care 102 families; average attendance at public worship, 150; at Sabbath-school, 
84; at prayer-meeting, 62. Infant baptisms, 19; adult baptisms and reception to church 
membership, 11. Many of the Christian Indians are efficient helpers in the prayer- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 47 

meeting and the Sunday-school, assisting Mr. Eells when he is present and carrying on 
the work when he is absent. The progress made by the Indians of .Washington Terri- 
tory during the past fifteen years is owing largely to the peace policy inaugurated by 
General Grant. Since 1880 the Indians of the Skokomish Reservation have been self- 
'supporting. They live chiefly by farming, logging, and working for the whites. 

At Santa Fe\ N. Mex., we have maintained during part of the year four teachers, who 
have had under instruction Pueblo Indian children, for whom Government scholarships 
had been secured. 

We have thus presented some of the prominent features of our missions among the 
Indians. The work is full of encouragement everywhere. The cry for enlargement 
comes from every station. There are tens of thousands of heathen adults and children 
who can be reached waiting and anxious for us to come to them in fact, sending us 
invitations to come and teach them the white man's way. The workers at the front 
importune us to send them re-enforcements young men and women of rugged health, 
unconquerable faith, and earnest consecration, who are willing to rough it and endure 
hardness for Christ's sake. As one of them puts it f "Not palace-car missionaries, who 
wait for everything to be done before they come, but missionaries who are able to build 
their own log cabin, follow the Indian into his haunts, and teach him in his own wig- 
wam." The Government is ready to co-operate with us farther than we can respond. 
The voices of the leaders of thought are growing more numerous and more loud in affirm- 
ing that the day of injustice and neglect toward the Indian should cease and the work 
for his salvation should be begun in earnest. The day of adequate effort to reach the 
Indians with the gospel has been too long delayed. 

SANTEE AGENCY, NEBRASKA. * 

Rev. A. L. Riggs writes: We have much ground for encouragement. In spite of over- 
whelming disadvantages the fewness of laborers and a limited treasury the work has 
been growing. 'The Word is having entrance and is giving light. The native workers 
are doing better work all the while. The Indians are coming to a clearer appreciation 
of what a Christian mission means, and urgent calls are coming from communities here 
and there for missionary teachers. It is a joy to us when they come to realize their need 
and want the gospel. But it is a stifling pain when we feel that they must continue to 
want it without receiving it. 

In noting the growth of the work, I would say a word about the work begun this year 
among the Poncas by the Rev. John E. Smith. He has proved a clear-headed faithful 
worker, one whose interest grows with the work. He has gained the confidence of his 
people, and for the short time (since December last) that he has engaged in it the suc- 
cess of his labors is very gratifying. 

Educational work. The spirit of inquiry is awakened among the people. To some 
extent there is a thirst for knowledge among the new generation. There is everywhere 
a groping for light and for knowledge concerning a new way. Santee Normal Training 
School is not merely worthy of mention on its own account, but in a peculiar way it is 
an index to the whole field. The scholars are not gathered in here by Government, nor 
are they attracted by the novelty of strange sights and the thought of travel in the States, 
but come here because they want to come. After making sacrifices to come, and notwith- 
standing the large numbers of pupils that have been drawn from this field to fill Govern- 
ment institutions, yet the number of applicants is steadily increasing, and exceeds what 
we can accommodate. 

This institution began its definite work for the higher training of Indian pupilsfi fteen 
years ago. It was the pioneer among Indian schools of higher grade. The prominence 
given in this school from the first to industrial work has done much toward creating the 
healthy tone and common-sense view spoken of. And our success in the various depart- 
ments of shopwork, farm, and domestic employments is very gratifying. 

And yet, the question of Indian education is not answered by the building of such large 
schools, except as they are means to other ends. The more difficult work of education 
lies in the hamlet, in the camp, and here and there and every where in the family. We 
take no satisfaction in our work at Santee, except as it is related to this work of bringing 
education and the gospel into personal contact with the homes of the people. The real 
work of regenerating this people is done in the out-stations, and the work of our central 
school is of value only as it makes that broader, deeper work possible. And herein lies 
one reason for the retention of the vernacular in our schools. The Indian scholar, sep- 
arate from his people, is not worth the work spent upon him, and that which makes him 
worth anything is his possible force as a missionary, speaking to his own people in their 
own tongue. 



48 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

GAME, DAKOTA. 

(1) The missionary force. Of white missionaries my field has been especially short. 
Spending lour months of the year in the East collecting moneys myself, and the illness 
of Miss Collins since the beginning of January, have cut down the A. M. A. force very 
seriously. For the school at Oahe I secured the services of my brother's wife, Mrs. H. 
M. Riggs. and valuable aid was rendered by Mrs. Collins, so that it has been possible to 
carry this branch of the work, with the limited number of girls taken, to the close of 
the school year successfully. The general missionary work of the mission at its out- 
stations was looked after, during the early part of the winter, by Dr. R. B. Riggs, for a 
short time. Since Dr. Riggs left, Mr. Elias Jacobson, a teacher employed by me for 
"the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel," has, till my return, attended partially 
to the wants of the out-station work. 

(2) I speak next of the missionary work done. This has been the chief object in 
view to bring a heathen people to Christ. And that they are heathen and worshipers 
of strange gods, and gods many, is painfully evident as you go into any of the larger 
villages. The effort to celebrate the sun-dance each year now prohibited by the De- 
partment the sun poles, the worship of departed spirits even to their utter impoverish- 
ment, the prayer offerings for the sick, the solitary man on the hill-top fulfilling his vow, 
gazing at the sun with eyes red #nd inflamed, and suffering from thirst through the long 
day as he follows the sun from his rising to his going down, these and many other indi- 
cations there are of abject heathenism. 

And one fact deserves to be understood the Indian'sreligion is indiridtial, not collective. 
Each man is priest and worshiper, so that, although where families are scattered there 
are not always^he indications of heathen worship and life that are found in the larger 
villages, still they are heathen till the change the gospel brings is made. All our out- 
stations are to a greater or less extent in centers of heathen life; hence the great work is 
to preach the gospel that men may live. And we preach to every man in the tongue of 
his own people. 

Schools are a needed adjunct to this end, that all may be able to read; as well as hear 
the truth. We have done but little in the way of industrial teaching at the out-stations 
other than by way of example. Precept there is, to be sure, but there is far more power 
in a carefully kept house, good, clean cooking, and a well cultivated garden, from which 
squash and potatoes and corn are gathered and stored for winter use, than in any amount 
of individual precept or government-blind issue of seeds, and orders to plant and grow 
food. Hence, at each out-station special pains is taken to have the native helpers keep 
clean houses and plant and care for gardens. 

(3) Schools. At each out-station a day school has been held whenever it has been 
possible. My absence during the past year has been felt in this direction, difficulties 
that might have been overcome having been allowed to close the schools in one or two 
instances. Teaching has been chiefly in the vernacular, with a beginning made in Eng- 
lish instruction at two of the Cheyenne River schools and at Grand River. Our schools 
appear to have suffered much from the breaking up of the villages more, in fact, than 
have the Sabbath services. 

During the year a movement has been made toward the establishment of an industrial 
school in connection with this mission, to be located at this point Oahe, and for the first 
year, at least, to provide for girls only. Acting under the consent of the Executive Com- 
mittee, I last fall secured from the Indian Bureau scholarships not to exceed twenty in 
number, and of $120 value each, or $30 per quarter for each girl in the school. This 
grant was made to be available during the first six months of 1885. 

I also obtained from Alanson Trask, esq., executor in the Marquand estate, a pledge 
(since made good) of $1,500 toward a building, on condition that an additional $1,500 
be raised. During my stay in the East a trifle over $1,000 was paid in for this object. 
But of the school, as attempted the past year: A beginning was made in .January. We 
had no proper accommodations for the scholars, other than by taking them into the mis- 
sion home. The number twelve was placed as the limit, and this was soon reached. 
Miss Collins' sickness made it necessary to provide other care for the girls, and Mrs. H. 
M. Riggs consented to attempt this. Her success was marked and complete. 

The girls spent daily two hours and a half in receiving regular industrial instruction 
and learning how to cut and sew clothes, as well as doing all their own work about the 
house and kitchen in addition. They were also engaged three hours each day in direct 
study of the school-room. Altogether the experiment has been a success, and a grand 
beginning is made for another year. We hope by October, at least,' to have the new 
building up and fitted to receive forty scholars. An efficient matron has been secured. 
The great need of this school has long been painfully felt, and its establishment is a 
matter of gratification to Indians as well as to missionaries in this field. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 49 

(4) Church work. Growth in this direction has been greatly encouraging during the 
past year. Since my last annual report I have baptized six infants and seventeen adults. 
Seventeen new members have been admitted to church membership on profession of 
faith, and three by letter, making an addition of twenty. On the other hand we have 
granted a letter of dismission to one, and two have died during the year. The roll of 
membership for this church the Shiloh Church gives a total of fifty-four. The greater 
part of these are young men and women, not more than one-half being over thirtv years 
of age and there being not not more than five who are past forty-five years. Of the seven- 
teen members received on profession during the year but lour can be regarded as past 
their youth. The position held by these church members has been good. But few have 
made any serious mistakes, and these, in nearly every case, have been followed by sin- 
cere sorrow and repentance. 

The support of their two pastors for pastoral work has been kept up more nearly than, 
it was feared would be the case. The pastors, Stephen Yellow Hawk and David Lee, 
have had pledged to each the sum of $60 yearly. This, in proper proportion in case of 
one of them, has been raised promptly and paid over at the close of each quarter; with 
the other there has been some little delay, as often is the case with white Christians. 

It is proposed now to follow somewhat the law of location and settlement, there being 
so great a distance between extreme settlements where church members have located, 
and from the present church organization form three separate organizations, one to re- 
main here at Oahe, one to embrace those on the reservation and south of the agency, and 
one to include the Cheyenne River and the district to the northward. 

(5) White River. During the year it has seemed that we could wait no longer in 
answering the call that has come so persistently from Indians on the White River, be- 
longing to the Rosebud Agency. As part of the results of a fair held by the Park- Street 
Church of Boston in February last, $400 has been provided for an out-station in that 
needy region. It is too early yet to say much of this effort. I have looked the ground 
over, and we shall, I hope, before the beginning of winter have a well-established out- 
station on the White River. 

(6) Suggestion. Push the missionary work with every nerve and all power; and for 
this particular field make the industrial school here at Oahe what it ought to be to fitly 
support and receive results from the out-station work. The present greatest need seems 
to be to provide for the girls who have attended our out-station schools and have learned 
to read a little in their own language. If we do not gather them in to something better 
than their home life, we lose much of that already gained and fail of rich results. With 
the boys it is as yet a little different; we can more easily send them off to San tee and to 
Hampton for industrial'training. 

In conclusion, I would add that the good Lord has always shown Himself ready to 
care for and lead us, and no more so at any time than during the past year, for which 
we give most grateful thanks. 

REPORT ON INDIAN WORK BY REV. C. C. PAINTER, CHAIRMAN. 

In a surveyor the whole field your committee on Indians thankfully note the fact that 
there has been a marked increase of interest on the part of the people both East and 
West, and a consequent improvement in national legislation and executive administra- 
tion as regards the welfare of Indians. 

Never before within our recollection has Congress been so sensitive to the criticisms of 
the public press touching its treatment of these people, and never before have the criti- 
cisms of the press been so justly, so intelligently, and so freely made. We believe that 
at last the people have called a halt to our reckless march over the rights and interests 
of these our unfortunate wards, and that henceforth there must be an intelligent adj ust- 
ment of our claims to their welfare, and that soon a solution must be found for a prob- 
lem which hitherto we have simply postponed. 

This question can never be settled except on principles of justice and equal rights for 
a basis, and through the instrumentality of a Christian education, which shall intelli- 
gently comprehend and provide for the training, not of an Indian, but of a man. 

We believe the system by and through which we have hitherto dealt with the Indian 
is an almost insurmountable obstacle to the accomplishment of the end we seek 
intelligent Christian citizenship. The system which shuts out from him, by a high and 
strong wall, all the influences of modern civilized society, is not and cannot be help- 
ful in our effort to civilize him; a system which makes him the abject and helpless 
victim of an absolute despotism cannot help him along the road to free citizenship; a 
system which deprives him of the means and facilities and opportunities of self-support, 
and throws to him, unearned by his own effort, a sufficiency of food and blanket to sus- 
tain life at its very lowest condition, cannot be made helpful to tut effort we would 
have him make in the direction of self-support. 

H- Ex. 109 4 



50 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Your committee believe the time has come when the temporizing make-shifts by 
which we have created and perpetuated the Indian problem, should be displaced by 
efforts which have some relation to the end we seek; efforts in which there shall be a 
recognition of the manhood of those with whom we deal, and which shall allow scope 
for the motives by which moral and intelligent creatures are moved along the path of 
progress. Immediate steps, we believe, should be taken to do away with the tribal re- 
lations for which we are responsible, to abolish the segregating and isolating regulations, 
metes and boundaries by which we have shut out from him the appliances and agencies 
of civilized life, and to put him into such conditions as are essential to a Christian social 
organization. 

We rejoice to note that religious and philanthropic efforts in behalf of the Indian 
are multiplying and broadening, which are educating the people to a juster sense 
of their duties, arid directing our labors iriore intelligently to the end of elevating and 
saving him. 

The increase in the appropriations of the National Government for educational pur- 
poses from about $600,000 to $1,100,000, for the current year, indicates that our legisla- 
tors have become convinced both of the desirability and possibility of educating the 
Indian, and at least realize that a solution of the problem lies in this direction. 

It appears from the report of the Executive Committee that this society has incurred 
a debt for this year's work about equal to the increase of the expenditures of this year 
over that of last for Indian education. This increase was more than 67 per cent. Your 
committee are unanimous in the opinion that this increased expenditure should have 
been made, and that a failure to give the money must not be interpreted to be a con- 
demnation of the increased activity in this direction. 

We believe the time has come when the Church of Christ should make its efforts to 
give these people the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ correspondent with its duty. We, 
therefore, heartily approve and commend the action of the executive committee in the 
appointment of a special secretary to bring this work to the attention of our churches, 
and respectfully suggest whether the duplication of this agency would not meet with a 
corresponding response. We believe that nothing adequate can be done whatever may 
be done in giving citizenship, land in severalty, the ballot, industrial and mental train- 
ing until the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ has been given to all these people; that 
nothing less than this can satisfy the demand of our Divine Master; and your commit- 
tee believe that we utter the voice of the awakened conscience of our Congregational 
churches when we urge this society to go forward with enlarged plans for Indian mission 
work. 



PRESBYTERIAN HOME MISSION BOARD. 

Indian work and workers. 
INDIAN TERRITORY. 

Cherokecs. Beginning with the Cherokees, who live in the northern part of the Terri- 
tory, we see first in our travel southward the work at Vinita. Rev. W. P. Haworth has 
labored here for several years, and is now reaping a rich harvest. Twenty-eight have 
just been added to his church. He also preaches at Pheasant Hill, Tulsa, and Claremore. 
At Tulsa a school has been opened with about fifty scholars. They are taught by Mrs. 
Stonecipher and Miss Ida Stephens. 

Rev. A. N. Chamberlain, the only white man who can preach in the Cherokee language, 
lives near Vinita, and has as his field all of the full-blooded Cherokees. 

Fort Gibson is supplied by Rev. C. H. Miller, who preaches also at Bayou Manard and 
two other churches in the neighborhood. 

This field has been richly blessed by the presence of the Holy Spirit, and the mission 
greatly revived. 

Tahlequah is the capital of the nation, and a very hopeful mission field. Rev. W. L. 
Miller preaches there and at Park Hill, seven miles away. Here we have two very flour- 
ishing churches and schools. Miss A. L. Miller and Miss Whittaker teach at the former, 
and Miss Bodine at the latter. Both schools will be enlarged. 

Into the Salison Valley we have sent the Rev. N. Neerkeu, who is laboring at Old 
Dwight and Fairfield missions. 

A new school is about to be opened at Childer's Station. 

Greeks. At Muscogee, among the Creeks, Rev. T. A. Sanson has labored during the 
past year. Miss Alice Robertson has just been put in charge of the boarding-school; she 
will have Miss McCormick to assist her. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 51 

The school begun last year at Ockmulgee is to be this year taught by Mr. Sullivan. 

Large and pleasant buildings have been erected at Nuyarka, substantially furnished, 
and the first half-year's work accomplished. This work, for which Miss Robertson has 
been pleading for more than two years has been successfully begun, and will be contin- 
ued for the benefit of the most needy and ignorant of the Creek people. About sixty 
boys and girls are to be educated in school and home duties, and clothed and fed after 
the civilized custom. Mrs. A. R. Moore, Miss Grace Robertson, Mrs. Ferryman and 
other helpers are in charge of this work. 

Rev. Thomas Ferryman is preaching at the school and in the neighborhood. He is a 
native Creek, and deserves much credit for the noble manner in which he has pleaded 
for his people. 

Choctaws. Still farther south, along the line of the railroad, with headquarters at Sa- 
vannah, Rev. H. A. Tucker labors among the Choctaws, preaching also at Atoka and 
McAllister. 

In the southeastern corner of the Territory, the boarding-school for the Choctaws, is 
located now at Wheelock. This is one of the most thorough schools we have. Mr. 
Robe, the efficient superintendent, with his wife and daughters and the Misses Young 
and Hunter as helpers, are quiet workers, but are doing great things for this people. 
Rev. John Edwards has labored, and is still laboring, among these people, with blessed 
results. Rev. Frank H. Wright, a recent graduate of Union Theological Seminary, a 
native Choctaw, son of ex-chief Wright, has lately been sent as a missionary to his people. 
His headquarters will be at Atoka, near which place he will have several preaching 
stations. 

NEW MEXICO. 

Pueblos. In New Mexico, among the Pueblos, we have enlarged our work during the 
past year. Mr. and Mrs. T. M. Marshall have been located at the pueblo of San Juan; 
Dr. Craig at Santa Clara, and Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Hawley at Isleta. Laguna, where Rev. 
John Menaul has long labored, shows the marks of his faithfulness in a civilization much 
in advance of the other pueblos. Dr. and Mrs. Leech, who are now in charge at Jemez, 
report progress. Zuui is a most interesting mission, but, like all of the above, is slow 
and somewhat discouraging, but we are hopeful that the labors of Mr. and Mrs. James 
H. Willson and Miss Abbie Willson will in the end prove successful. 

The bitter opposition from the Jesuit priests has hindered the work among these 
Pueblos, whom they have kept in the lowest ignorance and heathenism for the last two 
or three hundred years. . 

Albuquerque is the central point into which are gathered Indian children from the 
various Pueblos, and also from some of the neighboring tribes. It is an industrial 
boarding-school, and is very popular among the Indians; and, if sufficiently large build- 
ings could be put up, almost any number of pupils could be secured. The number will 
soon reach two hundred from the present outlook. Prof. R. W. D. Bryan is the super- 
intendent; Mrs. Bryan and Miss Wilkins are the matrons; Mrs. Tibbals, the Misses 
Wood, Patten, and Butler are the teachers; Mr. McKenzie is the instructor in carpenter- 
ing, Mr. Loveland in painting, Mr. Thompson in gardening, &c. ; Mrs. Loveland and 
Mrs. Sadler in .sewing; Mr. and Mrs. Henderson in cooking and care of , the tables, &c. 
Altogether they are a noble band of workers. The work done at Albuquerque is supple- 
mentary to that done in the pueblos, and makes the work, as a whole, very encourag- 
ing. 

ARIZONA. 

Papagoes and Pimas. The mission among the Papagoes, in Arizona, under the care of 
Dr. F. J. Hart, has progressed as rapidly as possible. The doctor has intrenched him- 
self in the hearts of the people, and he is preparing them for the larger work which we 
expect to get under way ere long. Among the Pimas, the neighbors and friends of the 
Papagoes, the Rev. C. H. Cook is working against the combined forces of idolatry, 
ignorance, Jesuitism, and Mormonism. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Misssion Indians. Though we have endeavored to know the best way to work among 
the mission Indians of California, we have done but little thus far, but now report a 
good work under way. Mrs. M. E. Roberts had been commissioned for this undertak- 
ing, and has opened a school at Anaheim. 



52 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

WASHINGTON TEREITORY. 

Puyallups, Chehalis, Nisqualty, Squaxon, Nez Perce, and Umatillas. Our next mission is 
far to the north in Washington Territory, among the Puyallups, Chehalis, Nisqually, and 
Squaxons, where Rev. A. M. Mann and Mr. Stanup are at work. Rev. Archie Lawyer, 
a native Nez Perce, is preaching to the people of his own tribe and also to the Spokanes 
and Umatillas in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington Territory. 

ALASKA. 

Tongas, Sitkans, Hydnhs, Hoonyahs, xnd Chilcats. The next mission lies still farther 
north, acrosss a foreign country in the wonderful Alaska land. The nearest point is at 
Tongas, where Louis Paul and his wife, native Alaskans, have lately opened a new mis- 
sion. At Fort Wrangel, the next point in the northward course, the Rev. S. Hall Young 
is laboring, and is at present our only missionary at this place. Mrs. A. R. McFarland 
and her girls have been moved to Sitka, where another building has been erected, and 
all the girls put under her care, assisted by Misses Rankin and Dauphin. Mr. and 
Mrs. Austin are still in charge of the boys' school. Miss Austin, having married, has 
left the service. Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D. D. , has been sent there, and is the mission- 
ary and stated supply to the church lately organized. 

In view of the enlargement of this mission, the Board has appointed Prof. A. J. Davis 
the superintendent, and has given it the title of the Sitka Indian Industrial and Train- 
ing School. 

The Hydahs are one of the best tribes in Alaska. Rev. J. L. Gould and his wife and 
Miss Clara Gould are doing what can be done to make them still better. A saw-mill has 
been put up under the direction of Mr. W. D. McLeod, and is now at work, and will 
be able to supply lumber for this and the other stations. 

Among the Hoonyahs we have been so unfortunate as to be compelled to change teach- 
ers so often that not nearly so much has been accomplished as might have been. But 
now that Mr. and Mrs. J. W. McFarland have undertaken this mission there is hope that 
more progress will be made. 

The most northern of our missions is among the Chilcats, where Rev. E. S. Willard 
and his wife and Miss Bessie Matthews are laboring with head, hearts, and hands to lift 
this people out of their ignorance and degradation. May the Lord help them. 

DAKOTA. 

Sioux. In Dakota we have the one mission station among the Sioux at the Sisseton 
agency. Mr. W. K. Morris and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Smith, the Misses Hy slop, Living- 
ston, Pearson, and Mead are managing both the boys' and the girls' schools, while Mrs. 
Renville has the neighboring school a few miles distant. Five native Sioux ordained 
ministers are preaching to the five native churches. Their names are Joseph Irondoor, 
Louis Mazawakinyanna, David Greycloud, John B. Renville, and Charles R. Crawford. 

It seems almost unnecessary to add that in every school much is still needed to make 
the work efficient, and that the want of money is the cause of these needs. 

Summary. 

Ministers 19 

Ministers, native (ordained) __. 8 

27 

Teachers in Indian Territory 14 

Teachers in New Mexico, Arizona, and California 27 

Teachers in Alaska 13 

Teachers in Dakota 9 

63 

Number of tribes in which we have missions 28 

Number of organized churches 26 

Number of schools 24 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 53 

PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

MISSIONS AMONG THE INDIANS. 

Seneca Mission. Mr. Trippe, after alluding to the discouraging aspect of affailfc last 
year, recounts with joy the work of God's Spirit during the latter part of the year. It 
began apparently with a funeral discourse which touched the heart of an Indian woman 
with great power. The evidence which she afterward gave that she had passed from 
darkness to light was this: "I mind my .house and I pray." The influence of her con- 
version sensibly affected others. The return of a native helper who had been absent for 
some time encouraged the missionary to undertake special work in a district known as 
the Pine Woods, where a number of persons were hopefully converted, among them an 
out and out Pagan, who was brought to acknowledge Christ, and to show manifest fruits 
of righteousness. The whole community seemed to be raised up to a higher moral ele- 
vation. Christian marriages took the place of heathen concubinage. At the mission 
church the Week of Prayer was observed, and the Spirit of God was there manifested 
through that week and the next. Confessions were made; conviction of sin was mani- 
fested; jealousy, strife, and unfriendly feelings disappeared under the genial influence of 
the Spirit. The work seemed to take hold of the young, and there is now an " asso- 
ciation " of young Christians. Weekly meetings are held with interest and profit. 
* ' While it is difficult to say how many have passed from death to life, over a hundred," 
says the report, " have expressed a desire for a better life. " Some of these have united 
with the Baptist church, others with the churches of the mission. A marked improve- 
ment in the whole temper and spirit of the church and of the mission work is noted 
with gratitude. The death of the Rev. B. A. Blinkey, a native minister on the Alle- 
ghatiy Reserve, deprives his people of a faithful laborer, but for him it was no doubt a 
blessed departure from this life. 

The report says: "The work during the year on the Alleghany and Cornplanter Re- 
serves has been encouraging. Under the supervision of the Rev. W. A. Rankin, of War- 
ren, Pa., the church building at Cornplanter will be pushed to a successful completion. " 
The report expresses gratitude to the Christian people of Warren for the interest mani- 
fested in the Indians. Many converts have been won at Oldtown. The report speaks 
with satisfaction of some new helpers who have been employed, namely, Revs. Alfred 
Halftown and Joseph P. Turkey. A few years ago Halftown was a drunken Pagan; he 
.and his wife lived in extreme misery. The acceptance of the Gospel wrought awonder- 
fnl change. His life and home were transformed, and he became a sober, industrious, 
prayerful Christian man. "Whenever he preaches," says the report, "the Spirit is 
with him, and the people say of him, ' God speaks through him.' His salary is but $30 
a year. He preaches every Sabbath, though in order to meet some appointments, he is 
obliged in going and coming to travel nearly 50 miles. We need money to keep this 
man at work steadily, for no man among all these Indians has such an influence for good 
as he, and under the power of the Spirit he seems just the man to preach the Gospel to 
the Pagans on the other reserves. ' ' 

Of the work yet to be done, the report says: ' ' There is a large Pagan population within 
reach of our church. Four years ago, when we first entered upon this field, there were 
no young men capable by natural and spiritual gifts to act as preachers. Now the Lord 
has answered our prayer, and we have the best men among the Indians ready for this 
service. Three hundred dollars would send a young man into the rich harvest field." 

The statistics of the Tuscarora Mission are the same as last year; also those of Tona- 
wanda. In the Alleghany and Cornplanter churches six have been received. Three 
native preachers are employed. At Cattaraugus, thirteen have been received on profes- 
sion of faith, making the total membership 130. 

Statistics of the Seneca Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 2 

Ordained natives ^ 1 

Licentiates 1 

Native helpers : 6 

Communicants 259 

dumber added 19 

Lake Superior Chippewa Mission. The work at Odanah has remained under the care 
of Rev. Francis Spees, assisted by a native pastor, Rev. Henry Blatchford. Mr. Specs 
has sent a partial report. A lady at the station was employed as a teacher in the local 
mission-school for a part of this year, but her connection with the school has been dis- 
continued. At Lac Court d'Oreilles, Rev. Samuel G. Wright has continued his work, 



54 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

and Miss Susie and Miss Cornelia Dougherty have conducted the school at Round Lake. 
Rev. Edward Green, licentiate preacher, has assisted. The correspondence of the year 
affords scanty material for a report. Miss Susie Dougherty, writing January 2, speaks 
of a first communion service at Round Lake, which was held on the previous Sabbath, 
Messrs: Wright and Specs taking part. Several white people as well as Indians were 
present The people looked on with much interest, and the old chief said that he felt 
as though some invisible being was urging him to join the church. Both he and his 
wife profess to be thoughtful, and almost ready to accept the peace and joy of the 
believer. 

Something has been done outside of school work by Miss Dougherty in visiting the 
sick and in administering simple remedies. Much of the missionaries' time among 
these poor people is occupied with cares which concern the proper supply of food and 
raiment for the people under their care. 

Mr. Spees, in connection with his report, makes an earnest appeal for the thousands of 
Indians still found in Northern Wisconsin without the means of grace, particularly the 
La Flambeau Indians, who still speak their own native language, and are still almost 
wholly heathen. 

Mr. Specs' report quotes the session's records of the mission church at Odanah, which 
mention also the action of a commission of the Winnebago Presbytery, October 9. The 
occasion appears to have been one of unusual interest. "After this interesting and 
profitable service,." says the record, "four Indians were baptized on profession of their 
faith in Christ; one of them, a lad, was baptized at the request of his father, who was 
also one of the number received. The reception of these members was followed by the 
ordination of the Lord's Supper, which was received by whites and Indians alike with 
great apparent benefit." The report adds: " For the support of the Gospel among us r 
the Indian church-members and a few white people have given, during the last year, 
$115.93. Five adults and several children belonging to the congregation died during 
the year. Four of the adults died happy in the loving faith of Christ; the other, poor 
Thomas Clowell, was chilled to death in the mud and water on the road leading from 
Ashland to Odanah, while in a state of intoxication. He had left a saloon for his home, 
which, alas, he never reached. How long will the black record of this wholesale de- 
struction darken the pages of American history? Let the Church answer this question. 
How long shall missionary effort.be paralyzed by the vices and cruel traffic of wicked 
white people, who outdo even the heathen in sin, sowing broadcast the seeds of death 
and ruin ? The parents of this young man are in deep affliction. He was the pride of 
his household, but his ardent nature could not withstand the tempter's power." 

The total number baptized during the year, including children, was eight. Weekly 
prayer-meetings have been sustained during the year. The mission .day-school has been 
maintained for nine months of the year. 

The collections of the Indian church at Odanah were as follows: 

Foreign missions; $8.60; home missions, $4.20; ministerial relief, $2; freedmen, 83.22. 
The attendance of the people has been good, sometimes large. There have been some 
excommunications, but at present there is a spirit of harmony apparent in the congre- 
gation. 

Rev. Mr. Wright, of Lac Court d'Oreilles, gives an interesting account of the head chief 
of his station, who had shown a spirit of inquiry. While his mind was still deeply in- 
terested, he went off on the autumn hunt, during which he was taken very ill. Having 
been brought home by his three sons, he lay for a time the victim of much suffering, but 
manifested a deep repentance for sin, and a hearty reception of the grace of God in> 
Christ. "He passed away," says the report, "very quietly, leaving evidence that he 
had understood and received the Gospel. Religious services have been held in the houses 
of'his sons, which have been largely attended by the neighboring Indians, among whom, 
it is believed, the good seed has been sown not in vain." 

Statistic* of the Lake Superior C/tij/fteira Jlixxion* 

Ordained missionaries 2 

Female missionary teachers 2 

Ordained native 1 

Licentiate 1 

Communicants 73- 

Number added 4 

Contributions ._. $133 95- 

The Dakota Mission. The able report of Rev. John 1*. Williamson for the past year 
bears evidence of a consciousness on his part that whatever has been successfully achieved 
during the year, the vastuess of the work yet to be done is still more impressive. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 55 

"The Dakota Mission," says his report, "was started by Presbyterians under the 
American Board in 1835, and the first church among the Dakota Indians was organized 
as a Presbyterian Church by Rev. Thomas S. Williamson at Lac qui Parle, in 1837." 
Great inroads have been made upon the heathenism of the Indians since that time. 
"The medicine dance is entirely given up. The sun dance, another great feast of the 
gods, has been proscribed by the Government, and it is doubtful whether such a gather- 
ing can be held during the coining year. Warfare is almost as much one of the lost 
arts as the making of pottery or the starting of fire with two sticks. Bat amid this de- 
cay of the former life there is a general turning of the Indians to seek after a new life. 
Everywhere there is an open door for civilization and Christianity. Twenty -five hun- 
dred Dakota children are in schools supported by the Government; the rest are in 
schools of the different missionary boards and societies. But with all that is being done r 
including the Catholic missions, more than double the present number of school chil- 
dren are as yet unreached. ' ' 

There are about 1,800 communicants gathered in the different Protestant churches; 
eighteen different agencies or stations being worked among the Dakotas. Two of the 
largest agencies Rosebud and Pine Ridge, with nearly 8,000 Indians each have only 
one missionary each, while Lower Brul6 and Devil's Lake Agencies have no missionaries, 
but simply a few native workers. 

The Presbyterians among, the Dakotas are organized into a presbytery of their own, 
with 11 churches and 700 church members. There are 12 ministers, of whom 9 are 
natives. The total church contributions in the presbytery during the year were about 
$2,000, or nearly $3 per member. Seven of these eleven Presbyterian churches are under 
the Board of Home Missions, three under the Foreign Board, and one under the Native 
Missionary Society. 

Among the 2,000 Indians at the Yanktou Agency there are 2 churches. Rev. Henry 
Selwyn, a full-blooded Indian preacher, is stationed there, and is doing effective work. 
Thirty-three members were received into the Yankton church on profession of faith, 
making a total now of 101 members. Twenty-two Indians were baptized. This church 
gave $174.14 to the Native Missionary Society, which was nearly twice as much as they 
gave their pastor. To all objects they contributed $350. Nearly $100 of this was raised 
by the woman's society most of their money was earned by piecing quilts and selling 
them at about $3.50 each. 

There is also an active Young Men's Christian Association in this church, which is 
doing a good work, caring for the sick and holding meetings at out stations. 

The Hill church, so called, is 11 miles east of the Yanktou Agency, and numbers 61 
members. Eight have been received on profession during the year. The total contribu- 
tions of this church were $90.81. It has also a woman's society, which raised $36. 

Fifteen miles northwest of the agency is the White Swan station, where a school is 
conducted during the winter months. During six months of the year regular Sabbath 
services are held, including Sabbath school. Eight persons from that neighborhood 
have made a profession of their faith in the agency church. There are still others who 
hope to unite in the future, and the prospect is good for the organization of a church at 
White Swan. 

Miss Hunter reports forty-two pupils in attendance at her day-school during the year r 
though the average attendance was only ten. 

The Presbyterian church at the Flandreau station has in its communion about one hun- 
dred members. Rev. John Eastman, the native pastorand earnest preacher, says: ' ' There 
is something to discourage Christian activity in the fact that nearly the whole settlement,, 
numbering only two hundred and sixty-eight souls, is embraced in the membership of 
the church. The people can grow in grace, however, and are doing so." In contribu- 
tions they are steadily advancing. They gave to the Native Missionary Society $147. Gl r 
and pay their pastor $150. To miscellaneous objects they gave about $50, making a 
total of $347.61. 

This church has been fruitful in supplying native helpers for work in other parts of 
the mission. 

THE NATIVE MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Of the Native Missionary Society, Mr. Williamson's report speaks with particularity. 
This society embraces all the Presbyterian and Congregational churches among the Da- 
kotas as its supporters. Its officers are chosen at the annual meeting of the representa- 
tives of the different missions. The society employs three native missionaries, whose 
work has received the evident blessing of the Lord. One of the missionaries is at the 
Cheyenne River agency on Congregational ground; the others are at Devil's Lake, a 
Presbyterian field. The society numbers nine hundred and thirteen members, and the con- 
tributions last year amounted to $908. 33. ' ' This, ' ' says Mr. Williamson's report, " is as 
large an average per member as the whole Presbyterian church gives to foreign missions; 
but with the Dakotas this takes the place of both home and foreign missions. However,. 



56 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

when we know that there are no legacies, and no large individuals donors, but that it is 
all given by what our American churches would call the poorest class, and that nearly 
one-half of it is raised by the needles of the Indian women, we may see that the love of 
souls has taken a deep hold on their hearts." 

The report adds: "As to the part borne by the different missions it may be of interest 
to know that the churches in connection with the Presbyterian foreign board with two 
hundred and sixty-seven members, contributed $383; the seven churches of the Presby- 
terian home board, with four hundred and seven members, contributed $278. The three 
Congregational churches, with two hundred and twenty-four members, contributed 
$200." 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

Mr. Williamson calls attention to the fact that there is but one institution of learning 
among the Dakotas where normal and theological training is given to young men, and 
that is supported by congregations in connection with the American Missionary Associa- 
tion. No similar institution is sustained by the Presbyterians under either the Home or 
Foreign Board. This is a fact which deserves to be pondered. Presbyterians can hardly 
expect other denominations to endow institutions for the training of Presbyterian mission- 
aries. The report justly emphasizes the demand that the church shall prepare to train 
up teachers and preachers among the Dakotas. "If she is going to do this," says Mr. 
Williamson, "she should commence now; there is, as we see, a loud call for more labor- 
ers; there is plenty of room for another institution of higher learning among the Dakotas. 
Much interest is being taken in the education of the Indians. The educational chan- 
nels are being worn, and if we do not commence soon it will be too late to change them." 

GKEAT NEED OF MORE MEN. 

Mr. Williamson, writing April 18th, says: 

u I trust the Board will find two men for this field, especially one to go to Pine Ridge, 
the other to go to Lower Brule. There is but one white minister (Episcopal) at Pine 
Ridge. Some of the agencies that we think need missions of our church, and require a 
knowledge of the Dakota language, are as follows: Pine Ridge Agency, Dakota, 7,000 In- 
dians, 1 American Episcopal missionary; Lower Brule Agency, Dakota, 1,300 Indians, 1 
native Episcopal missionary; Rosebud Agency, Dakota, 6,000 Indians, 1 American Epis- 
copal missionary ; Standing Rock Agency, Dakota, 4,000 Indians, 1 native Congregational 
teacher, 1 Catholic missionary; Fort Belknap Agency, Montana, 1,700 Indians, no mis- 
sionary of any kind; Crow Agency, Montana, 3,000 Indians, no missionary of any kind; 
Blackfeet Agency, Montana, 4,000 Indians, no missionary; Flathead Agency, Montana, 
"2,000 Indians, Catholic missionary." 

WOLF CREEK. 

At Wolf Creek, situated on the Missouri River, Rev. G. W. Wood speaks particularly 
of the hardships which the Indians have suffered during the year. His work evidently 
is largely of an eleemosynary character, yet no sphere of duty could be clearer than that 
which opens before him. The buffalo hunt of the previous year, conducted chiefly by 
white men for sport, nearly exterminated the great resource upon which this poor frag- 
ment of a tribe had subsisted. At the beginning of the year 1884 they suffered by the 
want of winter supplies, usually furnished by the fall hunt. Not only dried meat, but 
skins for clothing and wraps were sadly wanting. The very limited quantity of flannel 
given by the Government, and the inadequate annuities bestowed from the same source, 
were but a poor provision. " When the meager crops which they had obtained from the 
soil were exhausted," says Mr. Wood, "they ate their dogs and some of their horses. 
Meanwhile, in the spring of 1884, Congress made a special appropriation for the relief of 
the Indians in this Territory, for which, I understand, we are indebted to the Indian 
Rights Association. In the summer the Indians built a dam on Wolf Creek, and dug 
ditches for the purpose of irrigation, but were too late to secure a crop for their first sea- 
son. Most of them have built houses of cottonwood logs to supply the place of the 
teepei s ibrrned of buffalo skins. The result of these hardships has been the disappear- 
ance from the neighborhood of more than one-half of these wretched people. The school, 
in consequence, has been reduced about one-half in size as compared with the previous 
year." 

Mr. Wood has given considerable attention to providing suitable accommodations for 
the mission work. Sabbath services have been regularly maintained, though the num- 
ber in attendance has been small. The school was suspended during the building of the 
dam in order that the children might assist. The boys mid the girls labored together 
at this enterprise, as it seemed to be the only remaining hope of the tribe. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 57 

The report acknowledges a contribution of $372.25 from the Indian Rights Association 
for the relief of the very needy, particularly the women and children. 

The position of a missionary among such a people and in a country where, last winter 
for example, the severity of the cold at one time reached 63 below zero, is like that of 
a father struggling to protect his children from suffering and from death. Those who 
criticise the work of missionaries among the Indians because large accessions to the 
church are not reported should consider that the task given them to do is to protect 
and care for those who are the subjects of relentless aggressions, and that to judge of 
their success merely by the reported church membership were as unreasonable and un- 
just as to assume that the management of an orphan asylum or an almshouse was faulty 
and unfaithful because converts were not numerous. 

Statistics of the Dakota Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 3 

Female missionary teachers 3 

Ordained natives 2 

Licentiate. 1 

Native helpers 4 

Communicants 262 

Number added > 41 

Contributions $788 42 

Omaha Mission. The Omaha Mission sends only partial reports. Rev. William Ham- 
ilton and wife, Mr. John T. Copley, Mrs. M. C. Wade, Miss M. C. Fetter, and Miss M. 
L. Barnes are still employed. No marked changes have occurred in the work. Pre- 
liminary arrangements have been made through the efforts of Mrs. Wade for the erec- 
tion of a chapel, for which funds have been kindly offered upon condition of securing a 
Government title. This is now hoped for. In regard to the present chapel Mrs. Wade 
says: " We have to keep the children out of the regular services on the Sabbath in order 
to make room for those adults who come from long distances to attend. Still almost every 
time there are some who cannot get in, and always some who have to stand up." There 
have been innumerable offers of land upon which to build the chapel, some of them from 
Christian Indians, with whom it would be safe at least until the second generation had 
passed away. This great want, it is hoped, will soon be met. The number of church- 
members reported is 56. Only one has been added during the year. There have been 
in the school 38 girls and 4 boys. 

The repr>rt of Mr. Copley says: "The condition of the church at the Omaha Agency 
has improved during the year. Sometimes on the Sabbath we could hardly find stand- 
ing room in our school-building for all who came. The prayer-meeting also is better 
attended; yet the year has been one of pruning rather' than of harvest. Three persons 
have been added to the church, and two are expecting to join, but five have been dis- 
missed. The present membership, including four whites, is 59." 

Mr. Hamilton presents an interesting report of his visitations among the Omaha In- 
dians, nearDecatur, Nebr., attending in some instances their heathen feasts and dances in 
order to secure an opportunity to address the people, which was sometimes given after the 
heathen orgies had closed. He says: "In my visitation from house to house I am often 
told of a feast in the neighborhood, to which I generally repair, and I cannot think of an in- 
stance in which the people have refused to listen to my addresses on such occasions. " In 
one instance he addreased about twenty while they were eating. In another he found two 
groups of women standing outside of a hut in which the men were having their feast and 
their dance. These groups he addressed for some time, with apparent benefit. In the 
course of the day he visited four feasting places, in which he found altogether nearly one 
hundred persons. 

\Vinncbago Mission. At the Winnebago Mission, Rev. S. N. D. Martin and his wife 
have continued their labors, though Mr. Martin speaks in his report of the great disad- 
vantage of being compelled to address the Indians through an interpreter. The man 
employed for this purpose has but a scanty knowledge of the English, and the knowl- 
edge communicated suffers from the imperfection of his dull perception and halting 
speech. About seventy-five persons are reached by the Sabbath services, and six fami- 
lies are visited each week. Two or three persons seem to have received Christ during 
the year. 

Sac and Fox Mission. Work at this station was commenced in 1883. Miss Shea and 
Miss Ball have found the people stolid, but not unkind. The nature of the pure savage 
is apparent in the absence of any aspiration for knowledge and moral elevation. Yet by 
kindness and fidelity good impressions have been made, especially upon the young. In 
the winter many of the people are scattered in pursuit of game, but during the summer 
months the work was pursued more advantageously. Worship and instruction in the 



58 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS 

open air under the trees near the Indian camp seemed to be the most acceptable. The 
mission is two young to report classified statistics. The people, old and young, seem to 
be interested in pictures, whose object-lessons are freely used, and they are very suscepti- 
ble to the music of the cabinet organ. A Christmas-tree proved very effective. 

These people are surrounded by "civilization," yet they have learned only vice from 
the whites. They are suspicious and distrustful, and still adhere to their heathen rites. 
Miss Ball has resigned her connection with this mission. 

At the Iowa and Sac station Mr. Irvin has continued his work, though under discour- 
aging circumstances. The question of a removal of the Indians to the Indian Territory 
keeps them in an unsettled state of mind, and greatly interferes with successful mission 
work. 

Creek Mission. The work in the Creek Mission has progressed in the main satisfactorily 
during the year. Rev. Mr. Loughridge reports that he has conducted services at the North 
Fork church and at Eufaula, besides supplying the station at Little Kowetah, (> miles 
distant, once a month. At the latter place a chapel has been erected, for which the mem- 
bers of the Eufaula church contributed liberally; some in their poverty gave $10 each, 
besides contributing something for the boards of the church. No report has been re- 
ceived of the work of Rev. Mr. McGee at Eufaula. 

The North Fork church now numbers forty members, who, with the missionaries and 
others, have contributed for all purposes $13,4. During the six months of Mr. Lough- 
ridge's ministry in that church seven persons were received on examination, one on certifi- 
cate; two backsliders have been restored, and nine children and one adult have been bap- 
tized. The native licentiate, Mr. Pasulty Fife, has preached in this church for a number 
of years, manifesting great fidelity. He has also supplied the pulpit at Eufaula in the 
absence of the missionary. A small Sabbath -school and Bible- class are kept up. The 
exercises in the school and church are mainly conducted in the Creek language. Mr. 
Loughridge says : "I rejoice to report that all of the New Testament has been trans- 
lated into the Creek language; and the presbytery of Indian Territory, at its late meet- 
ing at Atoka, Choctaw Nation, appointed a committee, consisting of Rev. J. 11. Ham- 
say, Mrs. A. E. Robertson, and Rev. R. M. Loughridge, with Elder D. M. Hodge as 
interpreter, to revise all the books and have them reprinted and bound in one volume. 
The presbytery also ordained Mr. Dorsey Fife, one of our native licentiates, as an evan- 
gelist among the Seminoles. '" 

Mr. Loughridge reports two churches which have enjoyed great refreshings, in which 
about two hundred persons have been hopefully converted. 

The relations of the home missionary and foreign missionary work among the Indians 
within the presbytery of Indian Territory are most harmonious and satisfactory. 

Mr. Loughridge speaks of Waksuchee Tanyan, a Seminole licentiate, who, having been 
sent to the Caddoe and Wichita Indians to learn whether there was a demand among 
them for a mission school, presented to the presbytery a petition signed by twenty of the 
chiefs and principal men of these tribes, requesting that a school might be started, and 
stating that they could furnish about 120 children. In view of this application, the 
presbytery recommended the establishment of a manual-labor school for boys and girls, 
to be opened by the board of foreign missions. The tribes are living so near to each 
other that one school would serve both. These Indians live about 60 miles west of 
Wewoka, and are in a very barbarous condition, little having ever been done for their 
spiritual good. A Government day-school has already been established, but with very 
unsatisfactory influence. 

AtWealaka, Mr. Diament has held two communion services of great interest, at which 
eight persons were baptized on profession of their faith. The Wealaka boarding-school, 
under the superintendence of Mr. J. P. Whitehead, has numbered about 110 pupils, 
equally divided as to sex ; 18 of these are communicants. 

The Presbytery has responded to the request of the Board repeatedly made, that Pres- 
byterial supervision might be extended to missionaries of the Foreign Board as well as to 
those of the Home Board, with respect to salary, &c. In accordance with this request, 
the Presbytery recommended the payment of the following salaries: Rev. Mr. McGee, 
$300; Licentiate Waksuchee Tanyan, $300; Rev. Dorsey Fife, $250; Rev. Kowe Hacho, 
$200; Licentiate Gilbert Johnson, $200; Licentiate P. Fife, $200. 



Ordained missionaries ________________________________________________________ 3 

Licentiates ___________________________________________________________________ 1 

Communicants _______________ ________________________________________________ 119 

Number added _________________ : ______ ' _____________________________________ v 15 

Contributions .. . $134 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 59 

Seminole Mission. Of the Seminole Mission, Mr. Ramsay reports that there are " in 
the boarding-school 67 pupils, of whom 49 are boys. The scholars have advanced stead- 
ily without serious interruption, making commendable progress in their studies. There 
has been some sickness, but through the blessing of God all have recovered." Many of 
the pupils have manifested religious interest, but none have made an open confession of 
their faith. One of the advanced pupils of the institution entered Park College, Mis- 
souri, during the year. Five others have removed to the normal school at Fort Scott, 
Kans. Mrs. Hannah Powell, who had for some time rendered valuable service without 
salary, had to return to her friends, much to the regret of her fellow-laborers, and Miss- 
Elizabeth D. Davis has taken her place. By direction of Presbytery, a part of the mem- 
bers of the Wewoka church were set off and organized into a church called the Achena 
church, which is the Indian name for cedar. The native licentiate, Mr. Dorsey Fife, 
was appointed by the Presbytery as its stated supply.* New members are being added 
to the church under his ministry, and an interesting Sunday school is conducted by the 
ministers and the members of the church. 

Arrangements have been made under the direction of the Presbytery, to organize a 
church in a new settlement among the Seminoles, where already twenty-two native 
Christians are found, without organization, and almost entirely without the means of 
grace. 

The statistics reported for the Seminole Mission are as follows: 

Ordained missionary *. 1 

Ordained native ministers 2 

Licentiates. 3 

Native helpers. 6 

Communicants 4T 

Added duringthe year 1 

Pupils in boarding-schools 67 

Contributions $42 

Choctaw Mission. Spencer Academy has been maintained as usual. The number of 
scholars, from 80 to 100, seem to be making good progress, and for whose spiritual inter- 
ests earnest care is given; but specific reports have not been received of its work during 
the year. 

Nez Perce Mission. The Nez Perce Mission has suffered from the absence of Mr. Def- 
fenbaugh, during much of the year. The work in the hands of Misses S. L. McBeth 
and K. C. McBeth, has, however, gone forward, "covering," as Mr. Deffenbaugh says 
in one of his letters, "every form and phase of Christian work among the Indians." 
Miss Sue L. McBeth has, as heretofore, given her chief attention to the work of prepar- 
ing young men for preaching the gospel v Her own letters give some interesting accounts 
of the way in which these pupils have been transformed. One of them particularly, by 
the grace of God attending his instruction, has been changed from a "wild blanket In- 
dian youth " to a comely, dignified, and even refined Christian man and Christian preacher. 
Others have had a similar history. Miss Kate McBeth's work for the Nez Perce" women 
is hardly, if at all, less important and encouraging. These sisters have, indeed, been 
greatly prospered from on high in their faithful instruction and example. 

The report given by Mr. Deffenbaugh for the first quarter of the year, the period pre- 
vious to his return home on leave of absence, is full of interest, though, as he states, 
"the mission is at present in a state of transition," and lacks the settled order which is 
desirable. 

The nature of the work devolving upon the missionary is largely that of itinerating 
or periodical visits with one or more of his native preachers, during which protracted 
services are held, including the communion of the Lord's Supper, baptism, marriage, &c. 

The following extract from the quarterly report will afford an idea of the nature of 
the work: 

" On Tuesday, July 21, in company with licentiates James Hayes and Peter Lindsley, 
I started for Spokan Station. On Friday evening we rode into Deep Creek settlement. 
The beaming and earnest lace of our martyred elder, William Threemountains, was- 
missed. No truer blood than his ever stained the ground, shed in defense of the truth. 
He was ever unsparing in his denunciations of the wicked practices of his people, and 
was shot down while remonstrating with a drunken half-breed. We missed his kind 
ministrations on our arrival, and for a time wandered about seeking friendly shelter. 
On Saturday and on the Sabbath the usual meetings were held, and the communion 
service was appointed for the following Sabbath. Word was sent out on Monday even- 
ing to the different settlements for the people to assemble for services during the week. 
On Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday the people came filing in from different direc- 
tions, bringing their household goods. As arrangements were to be made for the com- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

munion service one of the elders mounted his pony and started to the sutler's store at 
Fort Spokan, 15 or 20 miles away, to get some raisins for the sacramental wine. 

"Among the exercises of Wednesday was a long conference with the elders in regard 
to the nature of their duties and the responsibility of their offices. I had announced 
that at the close of the service all unmarried members (who had lived together as hus- 
band and wife in the native way, in quite unsettled relations), should present them- 
selves for Christian marriage. The elders went to work and gathered eight couples. 
They were seated in a row on one side of the building to receive some words of instruc- 
tion, after which the couples rose up separately and were married. In the intervals of 
service we spent a short time in prayer and praise. Four persons were examined and 
received to the membership of the church, after which followed the sermon and the ad- 
ministration of the Lord's Supper. 

"At the service next morning, Peter Lindsley was preaching, and I took a census of 
the people present, with the following result: Men, 39; women, 40; boys, 9; girls, 9; 
babies 12; in all, 109. These people are certainly not on the decrease, and a more evenly 
divided congregation as to sex would be difficult to find; and be it said to their credit 
that only three of the men wore long hair and blankets. ' ' 

Statistics of the Nez Perce Mission. 

Ordained missionary 1 

Missionary teachers (female) 2 

Ordained natives 7 

Communicants 668 

Number added _. 14 



SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION BOARD. 

INDIAN MISSIONS. 

This year has been especially fruitful in the history of this mission. Under the di- 
rection of Presbytery the missionaries have gone out two and two, and have preached 
the word in many places. It was laborious service which brought its re ward. At nearly 
every place, writes Mr. Read,, there were some additions to the church. Quite a num- 
ber were restored; many children were baptized, and hundreds came to join in the wor- 
ship. At the Armstrong Academy there was a remarkable outpouring of the Holy 
Spirit upon the boys who were under the care of Mr. Lloyd, and twenty-four of them 
were added to the church at one time. 

There is another side of the picture, however. Rev. Allen Wright reports th it al- 
though a majority of the Choctaws still maintain a great reverence lor the Christian re- 
ligion, many, especially among the young people, are very careless in regard to church 
privileges. This is attributed in part to the influx of great numbers of irreligious and 
ignorant whites, who often intermarry with the Indians, and exert an evil uence 
^among them. 

We regret that several members of this mission have failed to send in their reports for 
the year, so that it is not in our power to give the statistics of the work. In the reports 
which have been received, the statistics show that contributions were made to all the 
general objects of the Assembly's work. 



PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

AVOliK AMONG INDIAN'S AND FREEDMEN. 

Much progress has been made in the work among the Indians who are especially un- 
der our care. The details of this work will be found in the interesting and valuable re- 
ports of Bishop Hare appended. A note of progress which is well worthy of mention is 
the remarkable success of the efforts made by these Christian Indians in the direction of 
self-support, and also the comparatively large amount of their offerings for the general 
missionary work of the church. It is gratifying to receive the testimony of unprejudiced 
witnesses as to the success of this important work, and we take this opportunity, with 
sincere appreciation of its value, to put on record the hearty and spontaneous comment 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 61 

of a distinguished laborer in this especial field, General Armstrong, of Hampton Insti- 
tute, Virginia, that "Bishop Hare's work is the very best that is done among the In- 
dians by any religious body in this country." 

REPORT OF BISHOP HARE ON THE STATE OF THE MISSION. 

A general conception of the state of the mission may be gotten from the comparative 
table of statistics which is herewith presented. It indicates, on the whole, marked in- 
crease: 









L884. 








1885. 




Niobrara Deanery (Indian). 


Baptisms. 


Confirma- 
tions. 


Communi- 
cants. 


Ofterings. 


i 


C o n fi rma- 
tions. 


Communi- 
cants. 


Offerings. 


Santee Mission and including Flaiidreau... 
Yankton Mission 


24 
69 


19 


209 
181 


$248 00 
348 00 


38 
52 


25 
24 


232 
186 


$245 00 
376 00 


Crow Creek Mission 


28 




51 


119 00 


51 


13 


64 


185 00 




24 


9 


42 


103 00 


55 


31 


68 


052 00 


Cheyenne River Mission 


97 


38 


195 


144 00 


83 


38 


181 


118 55 




106 


10 


96 


256 00 


105 


19 


118 


9 69 00 


Pine Ridge Mission 


159 


17 


63 


251 00 


170 


8 


85 


242 00 




26 




28 


31 00 


22 


9 


39 


114 00 




















Total 


533 


93 


865 


1 500 00 


576 


167 


973 


1 801 55 





















THE NIOBRARA DEANERY. 



A review of this field shows a marked degree of prosperity. 

Ten new stations have been opened, eight new churches have been built, one native 
has been ordained, a larger number than usual, viz, 166, have been confirmed, and the 
offerings of the people are $300 in advance of what they were last year. 



SELF-HELP. 

There has been a gratifying increase in the offerings of the people, the money having 
been raised, some of it as I know, under stress of circumstances and in spite of hin- 
drances. The record for some years past is as follows: Total offerings for the year end- 
ing June. 1881, $585; 1882, $960; 1883, $1,217; 1884, $1,514; 1885, $1,801. 

A NEW FIELD. 

A mission has been begun during the year on the Standing Rock Reserve, where there 
is a large body of Indians, Blackeet, Uncpapa, and Upper Yanktonnais Sioux, as yetun- 
reached by educational and missionary effort, some of whom have again and again sent 
us requests that we would come and do for them the work which we had done for other 
Indians. 

A visit made to them by Rev. Mr. Swift in the winter of 1883, followed by a second 
in November, 1884, in which I accompanied him, brought matters to a head. 

There was opposition from various quarters, brought about by various influences, but 
the representatives of the Indians, who had again and again invoked our help, rose and 
sententiously remarked that their minds were not changed, that they wanted our mission, 
that they had said this several times before, and now said it again. 

An appeal in behalf of these poor people brought the president of the Niobrara 
League, the Woman's Auxiliary of St. Thomas's Church, New York, and other members 
of the Niobrara League to our help, and a church with parsonage attached was com- 
pleted in August. 

The church is located on Oak Creek, the site being so chosen that the mission may 
become a center for a settlement of farming Indians. 



HOPE SCHOOL. 



The beautiful and convenient new building was completed last October, and was occu- 
pied immediately by the school. It stands upon a superb site, on a high plateau over- 



62 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

looking the Missouri River. It is built of chalk-stone on a limestone foundation. It 
is substantial, convenient, and handsome, and is the pride of the town and a credit to 
the church. It is a monument to the loving generosity of our friends at the East, to 
Mrs. Knapp, the principal, and Miss Knight, under whom the school reached a degree 
of success which called for a new building; and the children of a number of Sunday- 
schools and many others of small means, but warm hearts, gave of their little. The 
ladies of St. John's Church, Detroit, made up a special box containing bedding for both 
dormitories, window shades, rugs, and many articles, such as stand and bureau scarfs, 
cushions, shoe-bags; all made with the greatest care. The Missionary Society of Weth- 
ersfield, Conn., sent carpet, cot, and sufficient bedding for the girl's nursery. Special 
gifts paid for the girl's dormitory and the school-house, which bear the names of the 
donors, " The Langdon Dormitory, " " Coleman School-house. " The Woman's Auxili- 
aries of Massachusetts and Connecticut, the Niobrara League of New York, and the 
Indian Hope of Philadelphia, gave the enterprise their countenance, and this secured 
many gifts. % Nearly $1,000 came through Mr. Herbert Welsh, who had visited the 
school, and was an eloquent witness to its value, while many dear friends and long-tried 
helpers of my work sent donations directly to me. The joy of this great success was 
alloyed by the ill health of Mrs. Knapp, which proved so serious that she was obliged 
to withdraw in January from the mission. 

Miss Fanny E. Howes succeeded her, and though about the time of the change measles 
of a severe type afflicted the school and proved fatal in three cases, a brave and cheerful 
spirit was maintained by all concerned, and though the average number of the pupils 
has, on account of the sickness, been kept down, the accustomed neatness, order, and 
efficiency of the school were preserved. 

ST. MAKY'S SCHOOL. 

The work of this school was conducted during the year ending June 30, 1885, in the 
"building formerly occupied by Hope School, Mrs. Jane H. Johnstone being principal and 
Miss Francis the teacher. I had thought part of this building almost untenantable, but 
woman's self-sacrifice and skill and taste can- accomplish all things, and the school, 
though its numbers were of necessity diminished, had a very happy and fruitful year. 

THE NEW ST. MAEY'S SCHOOL. 

The new St. Mary's School has been erected four or five days' journey farther west 
than its old site, in order to provide for the wants of the 15,000 souls on the Rosebud 
and Pine Ridge Reserve, who as yet have seen but glimmers of the light. 

The building is within about 8 miles of the Rosebud Agency, and within a few rods 
of a rapidly-flowing stream of good water. It will accommodate 40 children, of whom 
half will be girls and half boys. It will be ready for occupancy in September. 

It has been constructed with a view to convenience, warmth, and durability, and is 
beautiful to look at as well. It is the wonder of the people. 

God bless the good friends who came to our help when this school was burned down. 
Such disasters reveal how many and how warm they are. The sympathy evoked by the 
disaster was universal. The Indian children of St. John's School sent $35; an Indian 
candidate for holy orders and the members of the mission force, and persons who had 
happened to visit the school in years gone by, united in loving expressions of regret and 
in contributions. The Woman's Auxiliaries of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New 
Jersey, the Indian Hope of Philadelphia, and the Niobrara League of New York, led off in 
contributions, and individual churches, Bible-classes, and Sunday-schools fell into line 
and followed suit. 

To cap the climax, Bishop and Mrs. Bedell gave the money with which to erect the 
chapel attached to the school, which is called Ephphatha Chapel, in memory of one who, 
having been afflicted with blindness here below, now sees the King in His beauty. 

The Rev. W. J. Cleveland, who has charge of the missionary work on Rosebud Re- 
serve, has given his personal superintendence to the erection of the new St. Mary's, and 
the success which has crowned the effort is due largely to his devoted and efficient care. 

SANTEE MISSION. 

(Population, including Flandreau, 1,060. Under the charge of the Rev. W. W. Fowler, 

presbyter. ) 

The church and parsonage, united under one roof with St. Mary's School, and de- 
stroyed by tire in February, 1884, have been replaced by a church and parsonage separate 
from each other, both of them neat, tasteful, comfortable, and well-built structures. They 
were paid for out of the insurance. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 63 

The disastrous flood of a few years ago swept away the homes on the bottom-lands near 
the Chapel of the Holy Faith and drove the people inland. They were urgent that they 
should be provided with a chapel accessible from their new homes, and pledged them- 
selves ready to do as much of the work as they could to make the expense as light as 
possible. Their wish has been granted a new chapel was opened last fall. As the old 
chapel cannot be moved, it will be sold. 

The Flandreau Mission has enjoyed since the beginning of December the services of 
Mrs. M. E. Duigan, who has done good work in visiting the sick, and other kindred 
work, and organizing guilds of the women there and at Egan and Dell Rapids. 

YANKTON MISSION. 

(Population, 2,000. Under the charge of the Rev. J. W. Cook, presbyter.) 

The church here, built of logs some fifteen years ago, is in bad condition, and the faith- 
ful missionary and many of his people have had it very much at heart to put up another 
and more commodious one in its place, in which a large part of the material in the pres- 
ent church could be used. 

Mrs. Twing on her trip here entered into the project with warm interest, and gifts of 
Miss Wolfe and Mrs. J. J. Astor will enable the missionary to carry out his wish. Part 
of the plan is that the Indian Christians shall provide stone and other material as a con- 
dition precedent. Delay in doing this has led to a postponement from month to month 
of this enterprise. 

Emmanuel House, now occupied by Miss Ives and Sister Mary Z. Graves, has been a 
center of practical work of the highest value to the women and children. 

YANKTONNAIS (CROW CREEK) MISSION. 

(Population, 988.) 

The statistics of the mission show a marked and cheering increase over former years. 
The third station, Saint Thomas's, suspended for some time, has been reopened. The mis- 
sionary reports: "The church and mission house at the agency have been painted out- 
side and in by the people, the amount expended being about $150. Of that sum, 
about $100 has been raised by the women's society and the balance given by the male 
members of the congregation, mostly the whites." 

These Indians were, last spring, the victims of an egregious blunder of the Govern- 
ment, which took from them, without their consent and without compensation a large 
portion of their land and threw it open to white settlement. The attention of the pres- 
ent Administration was called to the matter by the Indian Rights Association and others, 
and a prompt and decisive order from the President prevented the consummation of the 
wrong. 

LOWER BRULE MISSION. 

(Population, 1,550. Under the charge of the Rev. Luke C.- Walker, presbyter.) 

Here also there has been a decided increase in fruitfulness during the year, as the table 
of statistics shows. 

The Government has turned over to the Indians of Saint Alban's Station the lumber 
in two old buildings at Fort Hale, which they have hauled to a chosen site, and here, 
with the help of friends at Lower Merion, Pa. , they are engaged in erecting a chapel. 
Their zeal is most commendable-. 

CHEYENNE AGENCY MISSION. 

(Population, 3,188. Under the charge of the Rev. H. Swift, presbyter.) 

From this mission the word has sounded out into a region entirely untouched by us 
hitherto, the Standing Rock Reserve, as I have described under the caption "A New 
Field." Within its own limits, too, a new mission has sprung up, one of those efforts 
of wild Indians just making their first endeavors, like infants learning to walk, which 
are so pathetic. I wrote of them some time ago, ' ' The sight that meets Mr. Swift's 
eyes and mine in the vast wilderness was a new essay at a farming settlement, and at a 
central point a dozen Indians busy erecting a log chapel ! , I had sent them money with 



64 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

which to buy flooring, doors, and window-sash. They had themselves cut and hauled 
and hewn the logs, had put them in place, and were doing all the work. These people 
are just coming in from wildness and heathenism. They had been notified of our in- 
tended visit, and gathered from all directions, some in wagons, some on pony back, and 
some on foot. They had learned a few of the hymns and some of the responses by heart, 
and their first essays at a responsive service were very interesting." 

UPPER BRULE (ROSEBUD) MISSION. 

(Population, 7,762: Under the charge of the Rev. W. J. Cleveland, presbyter.) 

Unprecedented growth has crowned the- work in this mission this year, and, God be 
thanked, friends were raised up to provide chapels and little mission-houses for several 
new stations. 

Calvary Chapel was the gift of one who is known as " a friend of the Indian," whose 
munificent charity we have had occasion to acknowledge often before. 

St. Mark's Chapel and House were erected by the Indian Hope of Philadelphia. 

St. John's Chapel and House were erected by the Society of the Double Temple, New 
York, to whom we owe several other chapels. 

Gethsemane Chapel, not yet finished, is the work of the Woman's Auxiliary of Con- 
necticut, and of the ' ' friend of the Indian ' ' named above. 

The services at Hakte Creek and White Thunder are conducted in Government school- 
houses. 

Mr. Cleveland reports: "The attendance upon services at all these points now occu- 
pied, viz, seven, has been good, and the greater facilities given by the new buildings 
erected by the church and the privilege of using Government school-houses for holding 
services has added much to the effectiveness of our work." 

The Indians hauled all the lumber except one load for the church at Oak Creek (Cal- 
vary Chapel), from Valentine, Nebr., a distance of about forty -five or more miles with- 
out pay, and at Little Oak Creek and Ring Thunder's Camp they also assisted in the 
hauling without pay to some extent. 

OGALALA OR PINE RIDGE MISSION. 

(Population, 8,117. Under the charge of the Rev. W. J. Cleveland, presbyter.) 

The church at the agency has been enlarged during the year to meet the need of the 
increased congregation. 

The chapel and mission-house in Little Wound's Camp, known as St. Earnabas's, have 
been finished, and the Rev. Amos Ross, a native deacon, will soon return to the Pine 
Ridge Mission and occupy them. 

The Rev. C. S. Cook, lately ordained, has also been assigned to duty in this mission 
in order to meet its cheering increase and large demands. 

SISSETON MISSION. 

(Population, 1,500. Under the charge of the Rev. Edward Ashley, presbyter.) 

This mission has been steadily growing and striking its roots deeper and deeper since 
its commencement. This spring witnessed an awakening which greatly cheered the 
missionary, and manifested itself among other ways in the presentation for confirmation 
of a class of twenty-frve. The work calls loudly for small chapels at several of the 
out stations. 

BOARDING SCHOOLS. 

The average number at St. Paul's has been 40 

The average number at St. Mary's has been 24 

The average number at St. John's has been 36 

The average number at Hope School has been 24 

St. Paul's boarding-school (young men and boys), Yankton J{cscri'e. The Bishop, presi- 
dent; the Rev. W. E. Jacob, principal; Mrs. W. E. Jacob, house mother; Miss James, 
teacher. 

St. Mary's boarding-school (girls), Santee Reserve. Mrs. Jane H. Johnstone, principal; 
Miss Mary S. Francis, teacher. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 65 

St. John's boarding-school (girls), Cheyenne River Reserve. Mr. J. Fitch Kinney, prin- 
cipal; Mrs. J. Fitch Kinney, house mother; Miss Duncan, industrial teacher. 

Hope School (girls and boys), Springfield. Miss Fanny E. Howes, principal; Miss Maudes 
Knight, teacher. 

St. Paul's school reopened the 1st of September, the pupils cheerfully returning, and 
its full number being nearly reached within the first few days. 

St. John's school reopened August 25. The principal wrote: "The children are all- 
happy to be back, and drop into their old ways with work and studies splendidly." 

DAKOTA HYMN-BOOK. 

The painstaking efforts of the Rev. Messrs J. "W. Cook and W. J. Cleveland and Mr; 
Charles S. Cook, the committee who undertook the preparation of a suitable Dakota hymn- 
book, were brought to a close last fall, and the book is now in the hands of the people^ 



FRIENDS. 

The standing committee on the Indian concern produced the following report, which 
was read and was satisfactory to the meeting: 

To the yearly meeting : 

The standing committee on the Indian concern reports: That a year ago, as stated iit 
our report, Isaiah Lightner had tendered his resignation as Indian agent at the Santee- 
Agency, and we expected then soon to be released from further care of the Indians lit 
connection with the Government. 

No one was appointed, however, to succeed Agent Lightner, and winter approaching,, 
making it unpleasant and hazardous to remove his family during the cold weather, he 
requested to be allowed to remain until spring, and his resignation was accordingly re- 
voked. 

During the latter part of the winter he again sent in his resignation to the Depart- 
ment. We recommended Charles Hill, a member of our society, who has been superin- 
tendent of farming operations at Santee Agency for several years past, as a suitable person* 
to fill the vacancy. His thorough acquaintance with the duties of the agent, as well a& 
his popularity with the Indians, rendered him, in our judgment, well qualified for the? 
position. There has been great delay on the part of the Government in making an ap- 
pointment; but recently, we are pleased to learn, Charles Hill has been appointed agent,, 
and we presume will soon enter upon his duties. 

One of the conditions upon which he agreed to accept the appointment was, that 
Friends would continue to have an oversight of the work at the agency and render him, 
the same assistance extended to Agent Lightner, which we think it right should be 
done. 

In the second month last, the President of the United States issued a proclamation! 
opening up the Santee-Sioux Reservation to white settlers, said proclamation to take ef- 
fect on the 15th of the fifth month following, and the allotment of homesteads to the. 
Indians to be completed one month earlier. 

Under the ruling of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs not only the adult male In- 
dians were entitled to 160 acres of land each, as provided for by the treaty of 1868, but 
all minors and unmarried women were allowed 80 acres each, under a law passed by^ 
Congress in 1863. , 

This surveying and allotting of lands in severally required the agent and his employe's- 
to do a vast amount of labor in a short space of time, but it was accomplished and has 
given great satisfaction to the Indians. 

The Santees now have allotted to them 69,100 acres of land, and many of them have 
applied for, and some few of them have received, patents for their allotments. In addi- 
tion to this the missionary societies and the Government hold about 1,100 acres of land 
for school and agency use. The remainder of the reservation about 44,770 acres has 
been restored to the public domain, and is subject to entry and settlement by white per- 
sons, so that, in the language of Agent Lightner, ' ' We now have white settlers scat- 
tered throughout our agency, putting up buildings, breaking land and starting improve- 
ments generally, with a view to opening up farms. I think as a rule the surplus land; 
has been taken by agood class of people, that their presence and example among the- 
Santees will be of great and lasting benefit for general progress." 

The Ponca and Flandreau Indians who are under the care of our agent are doing well 
H. Ex. 109 5 



66 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

and we think if they can be properly cared for a little while longer they will be capa- 
ble of taking care of themselves. 

Agent Lightuer, in his annual report, says: "The work for the last year has been sat- 
isfactory. Improvement and progress has been made; 3,527 acres of land have been 
cultivated; 1,011 acres sown to wheat, 585 to oats, 288 to flax, 1,446 to corn, and 197 to 
potatoes and other vegetables. Our crops have been good. 

"Ninety-seven acres have been broken this year. Seed time and harvesting are past 
and threshing is now in progress. I cannot give exact figures as to quantity, but sup- 
pose about as follows, viz.: 14,156 bushels of wheat, 20,492 of oats, 2,845 of flaxseed, 
47,627 of corn, and 6,000 of potatoes, sufficient for the tribe to subsist upon and to 
spare. ' ' 

In order to enable our agent to purchase some clothing for school children and to pro- 
cure delicacies for sick and infirm Indians, we have paid $50 of our Indian fund during 
the past year, and the convention of delegates from the seven yearly meetings on the 
Indian concern appropriated $50 for the same purpose. 

Our work in behalf of the Indians the past year has been limited. We have used 
our endeavors to influence legislation at Washington in order that the Indians may have 
strict justice ai:d to prevent obnoxious laws from being enforced. We have also con- 
tributed $28 in clothing, &c., to the Piute tribe of Indians. This, with the aid ren- 
dered Agent Lightner for the Santees, constitutes our chief work. 

During the time Isaiah Lightner has been in charge of tlie Santees the missionaries 
who have had schools on the reservrtionhave given him their hearty support. All have 
labored together in harmony, with one object in view the elevation of the Indian 
race. 

Alfred L. Riggs, for many years missionary and teacher for the American Missionary 
Association on the reservation, thus closes his report for the past year to Agent Light- 
ner: "Allow me to express here my heartfelt regret at the speedy close of your relation 
to this people. I can testify that you have been the firm friend of this people ; you have 
been full of sympaty and ready to- help any good work which has been put forth in 
their behalf. As the Indians say, ' with a sorrowful heart I shake hands with you..'" 

On behalf of the committee. 

CYRUS BLACKBURN, Clerk. 



FRIENDS ORTHODOX. 

To the Board of Indian Commissioners : 

The Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs report: 

All the Indian agents nominated by this committee have now been withdrawn from 
the service. During a part of the year since last report six Government boarding- 
schools and three day schools have been wholly or in part supplied with superintendents, 
matrons, and teachers by Friends. These schools have had an enrollment of 585 pupils. 
Besides these there have been 129 pupils in the two institutions, one in Indiana, the 
other in Iowa, known as White's institutes, making a total of 714 scholars under the care 
of 54 Friends. A day school has been kept up by our aid at the house of R. M. Wil- 
liams in the Cherokee country, near the Quapaw Agency. We have also assisted a 
teacher who has had charge of a day school on the Seneca Reserve, Indian Territory, 
who has exerted a very useful influence upon the Indians in the vicinity of the school. 
Two Indian girls have been educated at Earlham College, one of whom is now teaching 
at the Wyandotte Government boarding-school. One boy has been educated at Mary ville 
Normal Institute. Thirteen boxes have been sent to as many Indian schools, filled with 
carefully chosen presents for the children and teachers. 

White's Institute, near Wabash, Wabash County, Indiana, has had a year of much suc- 
cess in training its pupils. It has a boys' home, a neat building for 24 boys; a main 
building for the family and some additional boys, and a girls' home attached to the lat- 
ter, yet sufficiently seperated from it, where are accommodations for 35 girls. There 
is a commodious sChool-house near the main building of the institute, and a carpenter 
shop, blacksmith shop, and good farm buildings upon the farm, which comprises over 
700 acres of good land. The gardening, farming, and stock-raising are all participated 
in by the boys. There have been 60 pupils, about equally divided between the two 
sexes. The boys are employed in all the operations of the farm, and shown how to man- 
age the raising of crops and of cattle. 

Three of them have been working as carpenters, and, under direction, have done as 
much work daily as white mechanics usually do. The girls have been trained in all the 
details of housekeeping, including the canning of fruits, cooking, butter-making, the 
cutting and making of dresses, and laundry work. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 67 

Half the day in summer, and more in winter, is given to attendance at school. The 
pupils have equaled or excelled white children in writing, drawing, geography, history, 
and in reading as far as the third reader. In advanced reading and arithmetic they have 
fallen behind white children. The buildings and grounds of the institute are in good 
condition, and its management has been very creditable to the officers in charge. 

White's Institute, at Houghton, Iowa, is under the charge of Benjamin and Elizabeth 
Miles. They have had 69 Indian scholars, of whom more were girls than boys. The 
pupils have been well taught in school. The boys have done farm work of all kinds,- 
.and five of the largest of them were employed by neighboring farmers during part of the 
summer. These worked satisfactorily to their employers except one. The girls have 
been trained in housework, including the making of clothing. The superintendent states 
that the scholars have made good progress in their studies, have increased in religious 
knowledge, and have gained in Christian character. 

The students in these institutes are taught habits of self-reliance and promptitude in 
business; also the value of time and the discreet use of money. These institutions have 
suffered much inconvenience from the action of the Department in reducing the allow- 
ance for each pupil from $167 to $150. This has restricted them from teaching trades as 
freely as they would otherwise have done. 

By a contract with the Government the schools for the Eastern Cherokees in Western 
North Carolina have been since 1881 under the general management of Friends of North 
Carolina arid Indiana, who have been represented by Barnabas C. Hobbs as educational 
agent. Five schools were established at such places as were most suitable to accommo- 
date all parts of the band, and a sixth has been added as a Government training school, 
to which 40 pupils have been admitted, 20 of each sex. These schools have had an en- 
rollment of 238, and an average attendance of 173. The sentiment in favor of education 
lias rapidly increased in the band, and the members of it are considering the expediency 
of compulsory attendance at school. 

The Tunesassa Boarding School, on the Allegheny Reservation, in Cataraugus County, 
New York, sustained wholly by Friends of Philadelphia, has had 35 pupils, of whom 
30 were girls and five were boys. In the long history of this school it has never done 
better work than within the past few years, and the results in permanent molding of 
character were never more evident and encouraging. 

A substantial Christian influence has attended the religious instruction given in these 
institutions, and indeed that given in all the schools under our notice. More than 100 
out of the 714 children and youths in these schools have made profession of the Christian 
faith during the year, and a large part of them have given evidence of persistent endeavor 
to act consistently with that profession. 

Missions. There have been four Friends, with their wives, acting as missionaries during 
the year. They have been assisted by three helpers, one of whom is a native. There 
are twelve stations in the Quapaw and Sac and Fox agencies, Indian Territory, where 
meetings for worship are held, and there are now 168 Indian members. The additions 
have more than equaled the losses by death or removal to distant points. 

The contributions for Indian work in its various forms has exceeded $12,000 for the 
year. 

On behalf of the committee. 

JAMES E. RHOADS. 

BBYN MAWB, PA., January 25, 1886. 



METHODIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

COMMENCED IN 1814. 

Two hundred and sixty-five thousand aborigines still linger within the United 
States. About one-half of them are so far civilized as to conform to the whites in 
dress, houses, and occupation ; but in some cases, even among these, a party still 
exists retaining their pagan beliefs and practicing their pagan rites. That portion 
of the Five Nations located within the Indian Territory, numbering nearly 70,000 
souls, are, doubtless, by far the most prosperous and promising of the remnant of the 
powerful tribes that once owned this continent. 

Gambling, intemperance, licentiousness, indolence, and other degrading vices every- 
where afflict the uncivilized portion of our Indian population. They are heathen, 



68 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



with souls as immortal as any, arid as fully within the compass of Christ's redeeming 
love. We who have entered into their inheritance, and before whose approach they 
have so nearly faded away, have peculiar obligations to the fragment that remains. 

In former years vastly more was done by our own church for the Indians than is- 
now being done, but we have still some interesting work among them. The tribea 
for which we chiefly labor are surrounded by our conferences and districts, and the 
work is therefore superintended in the regular way by bishops, conferences, presiding 
elders, and pastors. To aid in carrying forward the work, over $6,000 was drawn 
from the treasury of the Missionary Society the past year. 

Rev. S. Snyder, superintendent of missions in the Indian Territory, writes: 

"Our work in the Indian Territory has been fairly successful this year. Our 
greatest difficulty has been the need of. men and money. My heart bleeds for this 
people. At one place I saw men and women kneel and pray to idols and effer their 
garments in sacrifice to the same, while their tears and cries were terrible to see and 
hear." 

There are about 15,000 Indians in Montana. In the Fort Peck Agency there are 
twenty-four employe's, but, we are informed, not a professing Christian among them. 
In this respect the present diifers from the recent past, when the supervision of the 
religious societies secured at least some Christian employe's. 

At Poplar Creek, Fort Peck Agency, we have a school under the excellent manage- 
ment of Mr. and Mrs. L. R. Carpenter. They have been diligent in teaching the 
children Christianity and in training them in manual labor. The girls are taught 
sewing and housekeeping, and the boys have been raising crops that have in part 
supplied their needs. 

Missions and appropriations ly conferences. 



Locality. 


Mission. 


Amount. 


Central New York 


Oneida Indian Mission 


$00 




Onondaga Indian Mission 


500 






700 




Simcoe Yakima 


500 








Detroit 




150 




Saganing and Pinconnin 01 ... 


150 




Superintendent 


200 




K ewa w en on 


50 




Munisino' 


50 






50 




Iroquois 


50 




Gowanda 


700 
300 








Michigan 




175 




Riverton Indian Mission .... 


100 




Bi^ Rapids District 


150 




Grand Traverse Indian Mission 


200 




North port Indian Mission 


75 






100 




Port Peck School 


800 
1 500 








Puget Sound .... ... 


Nootsack Mission School 


500 








Northern New York 


Saint Regis 


350 






250 








Wisconsin 


Oneida *, 


600 
200 









REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 69 

E. 

THIRD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE LAKE MOHONK CONFERENCE. 
FIRST DAY OPENING SESSION. 

The third annual conference of friends of Indian civilization was held at the Lake 
Mohonk Mountain House, October 7-9, 1885, on the invitation of the Hon. Albert K. 
Smiley, one of the Board of Indian Commissioners, and the owner of that beautiful re- 
sort. The objects of the meeting cannot be told better than in Mr. Smiley 's own words. 
He said: 

' ' The time has arrived for the opening of this conference, and I would like to make a 
little explanation before the appointment of officers in regard to its origin. For many 
years, ever since the organization of our Board of Indian Commissioners, it has been their 
practice to have a convention in connection with the annual meeting in Washington to 
discuss Indian affairs' generally. To that convention the secretaries and well-known 
members of religious denominations have been invited, and they have generally been 
present, as well as members of Congress and others. In these discussions, usually occu- 
pying one day, we have always found that the time was short. The pressure of business 
in Washington was so great that we could not hold people together more than one day, 
and we have had to adjourn before we were through. So the thought struck me a few 
years ago that we could" give more time to the subject by inviting friends of the cause to 
this house and having a three-days' conference. I suggested the idea to some of my 
friends, and they approved of it, and that is the way this conference originated. 

"My aim has been to unite the best minds interested in Indian affairs, so that all 
should act together and be in harmony, and so that the prominent persons connected 
with Indian affairs should act as one body and create a public sentiment in favor of the 
Indians. It gives me great pleasure to welcome you all here. There has been a great 
advance in public sentiment. I feel exceedingly hopeful in regard to the Indian." 

On motion of Mr. Smiley, General Clinton B. Fisk, of New York, president of the 
Board of Indian 'Commissioners, was elected president of the conference. Prayer was 
then offered by the Rev. Mr. Harding, of Long Meadow, Mass. ; after which General 
Fisk, while doubting the wisdom of a third term (he presided at the preceding confer- 
ences), returned his thanks, and said: * 

"There is some progress in Indian affairs not great, but we may say there is progress. 
General Grant in his first message used about this language: ' The treatment of the orig- 
inal owners of this country has been such from the beginning as to lead to continual 
murder and robbery and all sorts of affliction.' He added that his own knowledge of 
matters on the frontier, his own experience as a soldier, led him to believe that the rulers of 
this country had pursued a course, or that national legislation had been such, from the 
beginning, as to be most harmful to the Indian. He then said: ' I have adopted a new 
policy, which is working well and from which I hope the best results.' The new policy 
was the legislation which provided for the appointment of the Board of Indian Commis- 
sioners, and such other, in the spring of 1869, as led to a better understanding of Indian 
affairs. From that time from the time when a certain delegation, one of the members 
of which is in this room, visited President Grant, when he said his knowledge as Presi- 
dent and his knowledge as an old soldier should be thrown in the right direction for 
the Indian progress has been marked. At midnight on March 3, 1871, Congress made 
that remarkable declaration that thenceforth no treaty should be made with an Indian 
tribe. They reached that decision after having made four hundred treaties, which had 
been frequently broken, with nearly one hundred tribes. Congress said we will put a 
stop to this wrong; we will not regard any tribe as a nation. From that time we have 
been visiting nearly all the larger tribes, and making certain agreements with them that 
are working for better things. Many of us are beginning to believe that the Indian has 
made all the progress he can under the conditions which have obtained in the past. 

' ' At the first interview I had with General Grant after coming into this Board of Com- 
missioners, he said, ' The trouble is, we regard the Indians as nations, when they are 
simply our wards.' General Grant went out on the skirmish line. Said he, ' We must 
make the Indian believe us; we must treat him as a ward. We should work especially 
to throw down every barrier in this country, so as to have no foot of land on which any 
American may not go. ' This, of course, meant the doing away with all reservations, 
-and pointed to the ultimate citizenship of the Indian ; to his absorption, for which we 
have been working for more than a hundred years. We owe the Indian a great deal 
land, homes, law, and, above all, patience and care. With such help coming to him and 
in confiding in those who deal with him, it will not be difficult in the future to settle 
this problem. It was more than a score of years ago that I met Bishop Whipple plead- 



70 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

ing for the Sioux. Mr. Stanton said, ' What does Bishop Whipple want ? If he wants 
to tell us that we have dong wrong, we know it. The remedy is not at this end of the 
Avenue; it is at the other end.' When you convince people, when you make the right 
sentiment that shall lead Congressmen to believe they had better give attention to this 
matter, then I shall believe the time is not far distant when there will be no Indians 
who are not American citizens. It is astonishing that nearly sixty millions of people 
cannot manage these few." 

Ex- Justice Strong, of the United States Supreme Court, was elected vice-president. 

Mr. J. C. Kinney, of Hartford, and Miss M. S. Cook, of Washington, were elected 
secretaries. 

The president, authorized by vote of the conference, appointed the following general 
committees: 

On Business. Dr. J. E. Rhoads, president of Bryn Mawr College; Philip C. Garrett, 
of Philadelphia; Mrs. A. S. Quinton, of Philadelphia, secretary of the Woman's National 
Indian Association; Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott, of New York; and Prof. C. C. Painter, of 
Washington. 

On Roll of Members. Drs. H. Kendall, M. E. Strieby, and William H. Ward. 

By request, Dr. Rhoads made the following report: 

Dr. RHOADS. At the conference held last winter in Washington, a committee of five 
was appointed to call upon President Cleveland, and lay before him such information 
with regard to the best methods of conducting Indian affairs as the experience of the 
last fifteen years had suggested to those immediately engaged in the work. President. 
Cleveland kindly appointed a day and hour for us to meet him, and three members of 
the committee Dr. Kendall, Dr. Strieby, and myself called upon him ifi Albany, when 
he gave us a most attentive and courteous hearing. We directed his attention to a few 
distinct points: First, the importance of having a Secretary of the^ Interior who was in 
earnest sympathy with the cause of Indian progress, and who would devote himself to 
doing all that could be done in his office for the promotion of their welfare; secondly, 
that the Secretary of the Interior should so foster the work carried on by philanthropic 
and religious bodies for the education of the Indians, that the Government might avail 
itself of their effective help without interfering with the ordinary course of its adminis- 
tration of Indian affairs. We respectfully urged that the appointment of a Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs was also a very important matter; that he should be a man in 
the full vigor of life, who would be ready to give himself heartily to his duties. He 
should be allowed by the Department as much freedom of action and such authority as 
would be necessary to secure success. In the appointment of Indian agents it would be 
better to continue in power men of experience than to put in new men who, though they 
might be more able, were without experience. 

Most of those in the field were doing well, but a few could probably be removed to 
advantage, and their places filled by better officers. We called his attention to the im- 
portance of sustaining the educational work which the Government was now carrying 
on, of maintaining the reservation schools and extending them so as to embrace all the 
Indian children. We especially desired that the Indian training schools should be sus- 
tained. We referred to the importance of defending the rights of the Indians to their 
lands, and that as soon as practicable they should hold their lands in severalty, under 
a provision enabling them to retain them at least twenty-five years without incumbrance 
before their lands became subject to sale; and that the rest of the reservations should be 
thrown open to public occupation, the lands to be sold by the United States and the 
proceeds applied to benefit the Indians. We also called his attention to the importance 
of placing the Indians under the protection and the restraints of law. President Cleve- 
land listened with such apparent interest that we parted from him with the feeling that 
he intended to do all that in him lay, as President of the United States, to care for the 
rights of the Indians and advance them in civilization. 

DR. STRIEBY. I want to add one thing. Dr. Rhoads spoke of the value of the serv- 
ices of the Board of Indian Commissioners, and the President asked \vho they were. 
We told him who they were, and of their supervision of the purchase of Indian supplies 
at the office in Worcester street, New York, which interested him much. 

The PRESIDENT. We should like to hear from Dr. Rhoads as to the Indian becoming 
a homogeneous part of our country. 

Dr. RHOADS. A glance at the map of the United States and Territories, prepared by 
the Department of the Interior to show the position and size of the Indian reservations, 
at once reveals the fact that almost all the Indians have been driven west of the Missis- 
sippi. The exceptions are that a small spot in Florida is occupied by the Seminoles, one 
in North Carolina by the Eastern Cherokees, others in Western New York by the Senecas, 
&c., and a few reserves are found in Wisconsin and Michigan. There are some large 
groups of Indians, as in the Indian Territory, which has a population of about 75,000; 
and in the great Sioux Reserve, which has almost 26,000; nearly 20,000 live along the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 71 

Canadian border, and large numbers are found on the western slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains, as well as in Arizona and New Mexico. But all Indian reserves and com- 
munities are surrounded by white settlements, and are not only affected at their mar- 
gins by the influences of white civilization, but are more or less interpenetrated by 
it. In short, the Indians are now in a new relation to the white race, no longer to be 
forced back into unbroken wildernesses, but in ever-increasing contact with our Ameri- 
can civil and social forces. The advancing host of native and immigrant people press 
the reservations on all sides, and the question of the civilization of the Indians and of 
their absorption into the body politic cannot be postponed, but must be met. 

LANDS. 

The whole territory held by the Indians comprises 137,764,731 acres, which seems an 
immense domain for so small a population. But it must be borne in mind that to a large 
extent the white man has possessed himself of the most fertile and well-watered lands, 
and relegated them to the arid and sterile districts. In fact, of the whole only 17, 886,815 
acres are reported to be tillable. In the Indian Territory, for example, a strip along the 
eastern border from 50 to 80 miles in width has plentiful rains and is fertile. But almost 
all that portion which lies west of the 100th meridian is so dry that it can be used for 
grazing only. The same remark applies to a large part of the great Sioux Reserve, and 
with yet greater force to the reserves in New Mexico and Arizona. In attempting, there- 
fore, to make theJndians self-supporting, it must be considered that many of them occupy 
land on which white men could not make a living by farming, and that grazing must be 
their chief occupation. Moreover, as it requires from 10 to 30 acres to sustain one ox, 
and sometimes from 3,000 to 16,000 acres to support one family, the reservations will 
seem less disproportionate to their owners' needs tljan might at first appear. 

POPULATION. 

The whole number of Indians in 1884 was 264,369, exclusive of those in Alaska, who 
probably do not exceed 30,000. Instead of decreasing they are slowly increasing; cer- 
tain tribes are dying out, but others, like the Sioux, have gained in numbers during the 
last fifty years. The New York Indians are said to have advanced from 4,000 to 5,000 
Within that time. In 1884 the births, as reported by the Indian Bureau, were 4,069, and 
deaths were 3,087, showing a gain for the year of about 1 in 264. A wild tribe, when it 
is obliged to settle down and live in houses, usually loses many members by death, but 
after having assumed civilized habits it slowly increases. 

Of the whole number of Indians only a few Apaches in Arizona, perhaps two hun- 
dred in all, can be considered as now hostile to the Government; the rest are peaceable 
and likely to remain so unless provoked to some blind outbreak by injustice or cruelty. 
The number who speak English so as to be understood is about 70,000, and 146,642 are 
reported as wearing citizens' dress. The Indians own 29,976 houses, of which 1,975 
were built in 1884. 

THE GOVERNMENT AND THE INDIANS. 

There are two groups of Government officers who have to do with the Indians. At 
Washington Congress legislates for them, and the President, the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and all his clerks carry these laws into effect, 
and form, one group. Another is formed by the Indian agents, United States officers 
who reside among the Indians on the reservations. 

The Department of the Interior, with the aid of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 
purchases all supplies of food, annuity goods, &c., and contracts for their transportation 
to the railway station nearest to the Indians for whom they are designed. It directs 
and controls the agents, issues orders and regulations for the management of the tribes, 
watches over their legal and property rights, issues a code of ' ' Courts of Indian offenses, ' ' 
and keeps an elaborate system of accounts for the five millions of dollars it annually ex- 
pends. 

But the Department at Washington could effect nothing for the good of the Indians 
without the afore-mentioned Indian agents, by whom the actual task of civilizing them 
is accomplished. The agents are appointed by the President for a term of four years. 
They are usually supplied with a house, often a poor one, at some point convenient to 
the tribes under their care. Near it are a commissary building where the stores of food, 
&c., are kept to be issued to the Indians a blacksmith shop, the trader's stores, the 
houses for employes, the buildings for schools, and perhaps a saw-mill to supply lumber, 
so that the whole at one of the larger agencies constitutes a little village. As the agent 



72 REPORT OF THE BOAR"D OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

is intrusted with property, he has to give a bond with securities for a sum varying from 
$10,000 to $30,000. Take an agency in the Indian Territory with from three thousand 
to five thousand Indians. The agent must make out each year a complete estimate of 
4ill supplies, implements, &c., required for his people, and send it to the Commissioner 
-of Indian Affairs at Washington. When the goods arrive he must receive and account 
for them, certify to their conformity to the samples by which they were purchased, and 
distribute them with strict impartiality to each family, taking receipts for all moneys 
disbursed. He must gain and hold the confidence of his Indians, restrain them when 
they are irritated or capricious, advise them in all difficulties, make an annual census 
of them (if he can), plan buildings for all purposes (including those for boarding schools), 
make contracts for their erection, and see that these are honestly performed. 

When the goods arrive the Indians come in from week to week for their food. For- 
merly the beef was distributed to the chiefs of bands; now it is apportioned to each 
family. The animals are weighed alive, turned out to the Indians, are shot by them, 
the skin kept for sale to the trader, and the other soft parts are wholly consumed. Each 
.year the goods for clothing are distributed in like manner. 

The agent also is practically chief magistrate. He selects a body of men for a police 
force, pays them $8 a month, drills them, and uses them for the arrest of transgressors, 
^vhite or red, and thus keeps good order on his reservations. Moreover, he holds a court 
with the aid of certain of his people to try offenders, fining them if convicted or sending 
them to a United States court for trial. Then he does all that in him lies to stimulate 
3iis Indians to take up land, to fence and plough and cultivate it. But the Indian seems 
to be as averse to assuming our mode of life as we would be to adopting his, and the task 
of the agent is a most difficult one. Until we comprehend this we shall not understand 
the Indian problem. An agent induced a wild Cheyenne chief with his band of young 
men to carry the United States mail, and for months he did it with faithfulness. Again 
he sent one of his employes with wild Indians and ponies one hundred and fifty miles to 
the railway station for the agency supplies. Here they received wagons from the Gov- 
ernment, loaded them, harnessed their ponies to them, and hauled the goods safely to 
the agency. This is a civilizing process. 

There are traders licensed by the Department who buy from the Indians skins and prod- 
uce and sell them what they want. These traders are everywhere spoken against, but 
take great business risks, and in manv instances contribute to the civilization of the In- 
dians. 

SfcOn each reservation the agent must establish a boarding-school, must have the build- 
ing erected and furnished, and get the parents to bring the children to school. Remem- 
ber that when the wild Indians first bring their children to be placed at school, it seems 
to cost them nearly as much as it would cost us to put a child of ours in their care. They 
come trembling, and with the greatest moral effort, with the utmost stretch of human 
confidence, give their child into the hands of the agent to be educated. We should give 
them honor for this. 

The boarding-school takes the child from camp life, isolates him from its savage in- 
fluences and brings him under the control of Christian teachers. In all these schools in- 
struction in work is considered of equal or greater importance than that in letters. But 
the children have to be trained in everything and to unlearn their savage ways; but for 
Tthe most part they are singularly docile. On some reserves there are day-schools away 
from the agency to catch and train the children, as it were, until they can be placed in 
Ufce boarding-schools. 

Besides these reservation schools, there are seven training-schools away from reserva- 
tions. General Armstrong, at Hampton, has 100 pupils; Captain Pratt, at Carlisle, has 
about 500; at Salem, Oreg., is another with 200 children; at Genoa is a school with 150 
children; in Kansas, one with 250 pupils; in the Indian Territory, near the Kansas bor- 
der, is the Chilocco School, with 150 boys and girls; at Albuquerque is a school under 
rthe management of the Presbyterian Church. Besides these there are admirable schools 
:among the Sioux conducted by the Congregational and Episcopal Churches, and there is 
no better work done in the whole field than by some of these schools. In Indiana the 
* ' Friends ' ' have a school with 60 pupils, and another in Iowa. Then there is the Lincoln 
School at Philadelphia; and at Sitka, Alaska, the Presbyterian Church has good schools. 
Of the 45,000 Indian children who ought to be in school, 19,593 were enrolled in 1884 as 
having attended either a boarding or day school, and the process should be extended 
iuntil all Indian children are brought under training and prepared fpr our modes of life. 

The 45,000 children include those of the five civilized tribes, and the total sum ap- 
propriated for Indian education for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1885, was $1,700,000. 
'That is a great increase from the grant made ten years ago, and Congress deserves com- 
mendation for its liberality in this respect. 

In Indian education, instruction in work is regarded as of great importance, and 
;scarcely second to that in letters, while training the morals, manners, and the habits of 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 73 

civilized life is persistent. Boys are taught farming, the care of cattle, and such trades 
as harness-making, blacksmithing, tailoring, tin work, wagon building, and carpenter- 
ing. Two Indians taught in the Forest Grove school now take contracts for buildings, 
supply the materials, and erect them. The girls are drilled in all household matters, 
and many a lodge or little home now shows the effects of such instruction by its neat- 
ness, its regular meals, or by the use of crockery or other household furniture. Not 
fast enough, yet by a steadily advancing process the ideas of our settled communities 
are being diffused through a large part of our Indian population, and whatever plans for 
the future may be adopted, they must be based upon the work already done, and be an 
expansion of present methods. 

The churches have done much to aid the Government in its difficult task in civilizing 
the Indians, and the Government should foster the educational work of the churches. 
In 1884, the latter contributed $179,085 to Indian education, almost one-third of the 
sum, $650,000, expended by the Government for the same purpose. Much has been 
achieved, but much remains to be done, and to that the people of the United States 
should address themselves with confidence, wisdom, and hope. 

Letters of hearty sympathy and approval, and of regret at unavoidable absence, were 
received from a large number of prominent persons, including Secretary Lamar, Indian 
Commissioner Atkins, Miss Cleveland, Bishops Huntington, Hare, and Whipple, Arch- 
deacon Farrar, the Rev. Drs. Phillips Brooks, R. S. Storrs, and T. L. Cuyler, United 
States Senators Hoar, Hawley, Morgan, Vest, Van Wyck, and Chase, Congressmen Hewitt, 
D. R. James, and O. B. Potter, Judge Shoemaker, Generals Sheridan, Crook, Miles, and 
Milroy, Captain Pratt, College Presidents Gihnan, Chase, Seelye, Caldwell, Editors Dana, 
Reid, Pulitzer, and George W. Childs, and others. 

Prof. C. C. Painter was asked to speak on the present condition of the Indian question 
and the difficulties in the way of progress. He said: 

"There are a great many things I could say, but the question is, what are the perti- 
nent things with reference to the object for which we have come together? I could give 
some account of my visit among the Indians; of the wonderful progress I have seen, and 
also the difficulties and hardships, as among the mission Indians in California; my in- 
terview with Mrs. Helen Hunt Jackson a few days before her death, and how these peo- 
ple lay upon her heart, and how her interest and prayers were all in this work; and I 
could tell of the condition of those Indians a condition that would appeal, not alone to 
Mrs. Jackson, but to the hardest-hearted person you could find, unless it be a California 
land-grabber. Their condition is very sad. 

" The problem does not lie with the Indian as a physical, intellectual, or moral being. 
The difficulty is not in the Indian. I could give illustrations of this, where Indians 
have had half a chance. The illustrations are few, I will admit, but I could show that 
the difficulties do not lie with them, but in Washington; they began with the policy that 
treated the Indian as a foreigner with whom we could make treaties, and with whom we 
need not keep our word. They began when we left the Indian outside our institutions 
and the protection of our laws; with no opportunity as a man, and no protection as a citi- 
zen; with no chance to take root, and no chance to show that he* could do anything. 
Look at our treaties with the Cherokees in the South. There was a case of successful nul- 
lification in Georgia just at the time when nullification in South Carolina was put down 
with an iron hand. The Supreme Court of the United States decided that the laws of 
Georgia extended over the Cherokee Reservation, under which Drs. Worcester and Butler, 
missionaries to these Indians, were imprisoned, were unconstitutional. President Jack- 
son said, " John Marshall has given his opinion, now let him execute it." We could 
illustrate with the Delawares of Ohio, but there is not time. We have torn the Indian 
up and given him no chance to take root anywhere. We have formulated this problem 
in such a way that the Indian agent is the factor in it. Dr. Rhoads refers to some agent 
as doing all he could to get the Indian lands in several ty, but that depends upon the man. 
When he begins to do that he will find himself tied hand and foot; he will find difficulties 
in Washington; he can't do it. That agent has been selected and put in a position under 
which, if he succeeds, it will be by a wonderful Providence. The present system allows 
the selection of an agent with no reference to the Indian whatever, but to political consid- 
erations and political rewards. I am amazed that we have so many good men as we have 
as Indian agents. Congress puts an obstacle in the way of success by granting a pittance 
to a man who has to take his family, leave civilization, and go out among Indians to live. 
It is a bid either for imbecility or rascality; a bid for a man who is not worth anything 
else, or for one whojsees his opportunity to cheat. If the agent be honest, he is yet tied 
up hand and foot if he attempts to do all the good he can. He undertakes to do a thing, 
and he can't do it. He reports his difficulties to Washington; the Indian Commissioner 
feels that the system ought to be reformed, and he finds that he himself is tied. 

" And so the matter comes back to members of Congress, who undertake to reform 
it by legislation. Well, I would like to have you undertake to secure legislation in 



74 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

regard to the Indian. There is difficulty in procuring any legislation, but peculiar 
ones are found here. So far as the Indian is concerned, legislation, till quite recently, 
has been controlled in large measure by the greed of the Western land-grabber. But 
we have a better condition of things now.- If something is to be done in the way of 
legislation, and somebody introduces a bill and it is referred to the Indian Commit- 
tee, one side of the story is given, but the Indian has not been heard so that there 
may be security that the object proposed is really a good one. The bill is introduced, 
and if it does not conflict with any white man's interest it has some chance to get 
through ; but if there is that antagonism from any source, the friend who has introduced 
a good bill finds himself tied up by the rules of the House. On special days, when his 
committee has the floor, and he has the consent of the committee of which he is a 
member to bring forward that measure, it may be taken out of the regular order by, I 
believe, a two-thirds vote of the House. But, in the regular order, it is buried under 
five hundred bills. Now, such a bill does not stand much chance on that one day, 
because there are railroad corporations and moneyed men who will occupy the atten- 
tion on that day. The legislator is hampered, tied ; he can't do it. Where are those 
bills in -which we have been so interested ? Why haven't they passed? Simply be- 
cause there is 110 time for this one bill for the benefit of the Indian, who has no voice 
and few friends nobody to push it against the interests of the white man. 

''Then, responsibility for Indian matters is so divided that it rests nowhere. It is 
over in the Treasury Department, and it is not in the Treasury Department. It is in 
the Indian Bureau, and it is not in the Indian Bureau. It is in the Department of Jus- 
tice, and it isn't there it is somewhere else. I will not undertake to say how the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs makes his estimates as to money needed for the Indians, 
and how it goes to the Appropriation Committee. If you take the estimates of the- 
Indian Commissioner, and then take the bill prepared by the House Committee on 
Appropriations, you will see that the latter take the liberty to think they know more 
about the Indian than the Indian Commissioner himself, a*nd they cut down his esti- 
mates fearfully. 

" In every case the estimate is cut down, unless, perchance, a member of the com- 
mittee conies from the State to which this appropriation would go; in that case it 
stands. The committee make the report, and it goes into the House. Somebody there 
concludes he knows more about it than the committee, and insists upon cutting it 
down still further. 

"They know nothing about the merits of the bill, but they must make a record for 
economy, no matter if it cuts down into the life of the people, as it did two years ago 
in Montana, where 482 Indians, out of a population of a little less than 2,000, died in 
nine months. With that warning before the committee, that condition of things 
urged upon them, the Commissioner makes his estimate the next year, and they cut 
it down. The Commissioner makes his report to them, unless that appropriation is 
made before the holiday recess, or at least by the middle of January, the probabilities 
are that the Indians will not get the benefit of it till they have had to go through 
their sufferings again. The Commissioner makes his estimates again and recommends 
an appropriation of $50,000 for the Montana Indians. I went to Washington to see 
if that measure would be taken up by Congress. I went to the Commissioner, and he 
said he had made his estimates. I went to the chairman of the committee of the 
House, and he had never heard of it. I went back to find where it was, and was told 
that Congress had made a law the year before regarding all such estimates: they were 
to be sent to the Treasury Department, and by it to be referred so and so, and to 
be printed so and so, and to be sent so and so. Well, it hadn't been sent there. The 
question was, where was it? In a few weeks Congress would adjourn, and the time, 
was coming when these goods could not go in, so I start through the Departments to 
find out about it. 1 go through the Indian Bureau ; I chase it round and round, and 
after a while find it in charge of a certain clerk who has the estimates for deficiencies, 
till just about the close of Congress, when all this will be sent there in a batch. I go 
to him to see if some action cannot be taken, lest these people starve ; but he cannot 
help m.e, and I go back, and back, and back. Instructions are issued that this be 
sent over. Mr. Dawes goes around and makes an impression on the Department that 
it is essential that this be done. He also goes to the Treasury Department for action. 
It comes from there. Understand that unless the Indian has a friend, it lies there. 
The clerk has done his duty when he has made a record of it, and when, in the course 
of time, he has sent it along. I go there and find they have been sent over all in a 
lump. I follow it up through three or four different rooms and at last find/it hidden 
under a total of deficiency estimates have been made for about $4,000,000 for the 
Interior Department. There is nothing to indicate that it is a matter of pressing 
urgency any more than the deepening of the channel for the Podunk River. You 
undertake to get this detached and sent out and are informed that it can't be done, 
except by a letter from the Secretary of the Interior. I go to him. He says there need 
be no trouble ; just send the whole back to me. I go back on a fool's errand ; as the 
clerk who has them in charge says this cannot be done, except in such and such a 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 75 

way. After more than a day's work I write a letter asking that this be sent back r 
because they wish to take special action, and it is sent back. It goes over; it 
goes through the Treasury Department. What is it there for? We get it over to the 
chairman of the House. He has said that when it reaches him he will introduce it at 
once. We get it to the Speaker's desk, and to the committee, and finally to the chair- 
man of the Committee on Appropriations a day or so before Congress adjourns. It has 
taken nearly two weeks, and then he declines to do anything about it, and Congress 
adjourns. 

"That is a fair representation. I don't care in what Department it is, you will 
find that the man who is working for the Indian is tied up. You must be patient with 
Mr. Dawes, and with the Secretary of the Interior, for they are trying to do the best 
they can. If you are working for any legislation in the direction of the Indian you 
will find, unless you can identify it with the white interest so that that will carry it, 
that you are tied. I am satisfied that the time has come when we should sweep thi& 
whole system a way and put the Indian on the basis of a white man, and give, him a 
man's chance in this country under the law. 

"Take the Indians in California. If they have any rights they should be vindi- 
cated ; if they have none, then do not send an agent there to look after them. These 
Indians are just as capable of taking care of themselves as white men. Why pay a 
man a salary to do what he cannot do? I wish I had in my pocket the pitiful appeal 
of the Indians, saying to the minister in Washington "all we want is some place on; 
which we can live." And to-day men are pushing Indians off these lands which they 
have had from time immemorial. Here is our superintendent of schools ; he is trying 
to do just what we talked of two years ago. He sees it clearly ; he sees what these 
schools are. He has a good deal of enthusiasm, and a good deal of hope, but I fear 
when he comes to the point that he will find he is tied in every direction. Take the 
interest of the school ; the agent has the appointment of the teacher as an inducement 
to take the position of agent. Our Government is so poor it can't pay, but the agent 
puts his wife or daughter or friend in as teacher, and the school helps out the salary. 
I think the time has come when we should take the ground that we should regard 
the Indian as God regards him, and give him his rights and a man's opportunities in 
this country. When we have done so the Indian problem will take care of itself in a 
short time." 

Dr. MAGJLL, of Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania). "I wish I had some words of 
practical value to add to those already spoken, but I must say that after hearing the 
last speaker, and giving such attention to the subject as I could which has not been* 
much the difficulties loom up, and they do seem, as has been said, almost insupera- 
ble. What have we been doing the last hundred years but driving the Indians to the 
West, and herding them together in those portions of the country which are in most 
cases worthless, on lands where, if they should be taught agriculture, they conld not 
make a living? What have we been doing but separating the Indians from the 
whites, and making treaties with them ? Suppose we take the same course with any 
other class of people in this country, for we are made up from all nations. I have 
thought that if we should separate the colored race and treat them in the same way 
we should have a similar result. I was glad General Grant thought proper to take 
one step and consider them as wards ; but I would go further and say it is time to- 
consider them not as wards, but as individual citizens. Until we are right on that 
point we shall not be on right ground. If there was any way in which these reserva- 
tions could be broken up and the Indians placed upon them and allowed to go where 
they chose it would be better, or if we could have taken the course pursued in 
Canada, that of absorption, it would have been better. But we have gone on in the 
wrong way, and now we have got to remove the difficulties that have accumulated in 
the last century. The problem is a difficult one, and one upon which I have not the 
power to make any suggestions that would be of any value. But we shall never be 
on right ground till we give them equal, independent rights, and. cease to consider 
them as a people." 

The remaining moments of the morning session were occupied by General Whit- 
tlesey, who, by request, spoke on the evils of the present system of annuities, and the 
issuing of food and clothing. 

General E. WHITTLESEY. "Mr. Chairman, I suppose there ought to be, and is, lying 
back in some corner of my brain some apt line of Homer, or maxim of Seneca, that 
would be appropriate for an introduction to this subject, but I do not think of any 
just now, and therefore I will fall back upon a book more familiar in these days than 
Homer or Seneca, and give you the words of St. Paul, ' If any man will not work,, 
neither shall he eat.' We have been, for one hundred years, teaching the Indian to- 
violate that precept. We have been feeding the Indians, to a large extent, in idleness,, 
and we have cultivated in the mind of the Indian the sentiment that work is dishon- 
orable and entirely unnecessary, and that he has a right now to demand of the Ameri- 
can Government that he shall be fed without work ; that he shall have an abundance 
to eat as long as he lives, and shall spend his time in riding upon his pony or sitting. 



76 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

idle in his camp. So wo have made the Indian, by our treatment, a pauper and a beg- 
gar. That they are inveterate beggars, we all know who go among them. They are as 
persistent beggars as the Italians about Naples. They will follow you everywhere, ask- 
ing for things they need. When they go into council the great burden of their talk 
is what they want the Great Father to give them more beef, more clothing, more 
everything, and then they want him to give them more land. Now, having made 
Mm what he is, the difficulties of making him something else are very great, as we have 
heard this morning ; and I do not suppose it will be possible to make him anything 
else than he is. I suppose we shall have to go on feeding him in idleness as long as he 
lives, excepting here and there a few whom we may persuade to do better. But those 
who are growing up the young Indians will become beggars by our fault if they be- 
come beggars; by our keeping on cultivating those habits of life that we have been 
cultivating for one hundred years. But I ahi sure we can stop doing that. Now, some 
of us have seen the issue of provisions and clothing to the Indians. It is not a process 
pleasing to describe. We know how debasing it is. We have seen, also, the issuing 
of money, paid out^er capita, and that is more demoralizing, if possible, than food or 
clothing. I have seen Indians come to the agent's office and beg their money he is 
compelled to give it, to the hurt of us and them and go off into the bushes, a few 
rods away, and there commence gambling. I have seen them do it again and again, 
and they do not stop till their money is gone. I believe nine dollars out of ten in the 
last twenty years have been wasted in that way. The money has gone to corrupt In- 
dians. Yet we are obliged to issue these annuities, because we have made these un- 
fortunate treaties, in which we have sworn to our hurt and theirs, till we can persuade 
the Indian to something better." 

Mr. SMILEY. " One word in regard to Professor Painter's remarks. While they are 
true, there are some things that, in a general audience, might be misunderstood. We 
all know that when a man has only one or two to work for him there is no red tape ; 
but when you have a large force of workmen there have to be regulations and rules, 
and a complicated system of book-keeping. Now, anybody may think it an easy task 
to manage the Interior Department in regard to the Indian Bureau, but it is not so. 
In the first place no money can go out except by appropriation from Congress. That 
is good law, but everybody winces under it. Suppose we could pay out without or- 
ders, what would be the result ? I will warrant that every ten cents sent to the In- 
dian would cost a dollar before it reaches him. You have got to go through a great 
number of departments, and nobody can prevent this; it must be so, because of the 
large appropriations You cannot pay an Indian agent unless the matter goes through 
nineteen desks. It is a good deal of it necessary, and I sympathize with the red tape, 
although I wish it were swept away. If the Indian is put on his own footing he goes 
to his own court ; his troubles will not be settled at Washington. Furthermore, if he 
has a vote, the neighbors will look out for him, and help him." 

The session then adjourned until evening. In the afternoon Mr. Smiley gave his 
guests a mountain ride to Quyot's Hill. 

FIRST DAY EVENING SESSION. 

The conference reassembled at 7.30 o'clock p. m. 

On calling to order, President Fisk said : It gives me great pleasure to introduc toe 
you Hon. Erastus Brooks. 

Mr. BROOKS. Mr. President, and ladies and gentlemen, I thank you cordially for 
your kindly introduction to this audience. But I desire, first of all, personally, and 
as part of my duty, to express my cordial thanks to our host for the privilege which 
enables me to participate in your deliberations. I have prepared a paper somewhat 
historical in its character, and am a little doubtful, perhaps, of the wisdom of recur- 
ring to history and the duties of the past in regard to the duties of the present. But, 
as history repeats itself from year to year, and as the men of one generation are like 
the men of another, I have thought that it might not be unprofitable to recall some 
incidents in the history of the Indians. In that spirit and purpose I have" prepared 
this paper on the history of the Indians for the past two hundred and seventy-five 
years. But I beg you to understand that the length of the period has no reference to 
the length of my address. 

THE INDIAN IN AMERICAN HISTORY ADDRESS OF HON. ERASTUS BROOKS. 

It has been said in extenuation of wrongs inflicted upon the Indian that he was 
the steward of but one talent, buried this talent, made no interest on his money, and 
as a natural sequence of his limited possession and persistent burial, it is added, 
" From him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he seemeth to have." 
The white people have unquestionably obeyed this Scripture to the letter ; but upon 
a precedent of morals and administration like this, it might be concluded that the 



KEPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 7 

world is divided into just two classes the strong and the weak, the powerful and the 
helpless, in order that 

They may take who have the power, 

And they may keep who can. 

The millions of emancipated slaves, of ignorant whites, and the tens of thousands 
in asylums, institutions, prisons, and poor-houses, fare better than this, alike in gen- 
eral sympathy and public legislation. 

The Pilgrims all honor to their many virtues, of which the treatment of the Indiana 
and Quakers is not one unquestionably extinguished the title of the Indian lands, as 
did the Cavaliers in Virginia, the Huguenots north and south. The millions from 
abroad and the more millions born upon the soil not only followed their example, 
but have gone far beyond it. 

To the credit of a Massachusetts law, as old as 1633, it was enacted that the Indians 
might have like land allotments with the English, and if "a competent number 
proved capable by what was called civility, they shall have parts of land undisposed 
of for a plantation ; " and upon proof of ownership, not put off their own hunting 
grounds and fishing places. This was the letter of the law, but, as a rule, it was a 
law not in force. 

If we put ourselves in their times and places, we can see, as we have seen from 1633 
to 1885, the need of speedy and more decent legislation. "In all my practice at the 
bar," said old John Adams, " I never knew a contested title but what was traced up 
to the Indian title." The right of Indian occupancy to Indianl ands was never once 
disputed by Spanish, English, French, or other discoverers. More than one tribe of 
Indians then, and since, held to the original title, and it was to them a religious prin- 
ciple that to traffic in land was like dealing in human flesh. God, they said, had 
given them the land to live on, and no man could sell it. * 

The sou of the senior Adams, when discussing the opium trade with China in Con- 
gress, after he had been President, seemed to think, as too many do, that dealing with 
heathen men is more a question of power than a question of right, and some of our 
professed Christian philosophers have recited two famous resolutions with more real- 
ity in practice than humor of statement: 

Resolved, first, that the w r orld and the fullness thereof belongs to the saints. 

Resolved, secondly, that we are the saints. 

With some historical records and facts resting upon Indian life rights, and popular 
conduct, let me present the following conclusions : 

That the entire history of this Government, as colonies, as the confederation of 
States, and as the union of States, proves that, in dealing with those who are called 
savages, where the greatest wrongs have been suggested, planned, or committed, the 
greatest offenders, as a rale, have been what are called civilized white men, communi- 
ties and peoples of the old and new world. As a rule, also, let me show that kind and 
fair teeatment have been rewarded by reciprocal acts of fidelity, kindness, and friend- 
ship 

First of all, in proof of this latter statement, I recall the visits of Father Henne- 
pin, of the navigator Hudson, of Lewis and Clark among the Oregon Indians, of Car- 
ter, Catliu, and others. In all the remarkable hospitalities of the world, none have 
ever been more generous than the Indian tribes of the west and east to the mission- 
aries, navigators, and discoverers of the old and new world. 

Second. That the five Indian tribes, once known as the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, alike in their language, eloquence, commanding forms, 
independence of character, natural abilities, prowess in war, and strength in peace, 
demonstrated the original power of the Indian race. What they most needed in civili- 
zation and religion, in useful and skillful toil, they never found among either the Eng- 
lish or Dutch companies abroad, nor, as a rule, among the emigrants from abroad. 
As proprietors, those who came and those who sent them here were persons who 
often robbed them of their lands, their liberties, their rights, substituting for these 
and like possessions jealousies, remorses, and hatred; while, as under Sir Walter 
Raleigh, Col. John Smith, Lords Delaware and Gates, William Penn, the Eliots, the 
Brainards, and others, there might have been mutual peace and prosperity. 

The tribes once masters of the lauds from Canada to the Mississippi were conquered 
rather by force than in a fair struggle to obtain supreme power, 

The Six Nations are proof of this. They hated the French from the moment Cham- 
plain fired upon the Iroquois from the ranks of the Algonquins, who were their deadly 
foes. The conduct of the French was infamous. Under Sir William Johnson the In- 
dians were as true to the English as they were hostile to the French and the colonists. 
The reason of this devotion rested upon the important fact that Johnson was neither 
treacherous nor hostile to the Six Nations. Faithful to old Sir William Johnson, they 
were loyal to his son, Sir Guy Johnson, who taught them after the English fashion of 

* The very essence of what is called sovereignty has rested upon seizure, unsurpa- 
tiou, and force. 



78 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the time, and this teaching was that the colonial rebels -would bring them into slavery, 
.and make horses and oxen of their whole tribe. 

The pride and hope of the famous Joseph Brandt, whose Indian name was Thayen- 
<ianega (the iron-hearted Mohawk), was that of a man proud of his ancestry. He 
loved the land of his fathers. His proud words were, " The Six Nations have no dic- 
tator among the nations of the earth. We are not the wards of England ; we are a 
free commonwealth." 

In this spirit he fought the French, resisted the colonists, and allied himself and 
liis tribe to the English because he found them friends. Sent by them to a charity 
school for two years, he became a convert to the education and to the Christianizing 
of the Indian race. His home at Canajoharie became an asylum for missionaries in 
the wilderness. "May we always be able to live as good subjects, fear God, and 
honor the king," was his answer to Dr. Wheelock, his colonial teacher, who tried in 
vain to win him to the American side. No wonder that the British officers at Lake 
George, at Niagara, and in all the contests on the Mohawk, declared Brandt to be in- 
dispensable to the suppression of the rebellion. In England he was called a true 
gentleman ; but as an Indian chief, proud of his birth and race, he refused to kneel 
to the king or kiss his hand. 

The peace of 1783 found him alone and forsaken among his enemies. He had fought 
-with bloody hands and a most determined purpose. The English made no provision 
for his protection, none for his tribe, none for their lands ; but true to his allegiance 
of sink or swim with the British, the Crown, in the course of time, gave his followers, 
the Mohawks and the rest of the Six Nations, six miles of land on each side of the 
Grand River, in Canada west. And just here, to show what a native American Indian 
could do on the right side, he erected the first church in Upper Canada, and, after 
three years begging from the Lord Bishop of London, secured a missionary of the 
dross, who was ordained in Trinity Church in 1801, erected a school house and flour- 
mill, superintended the printing of the Gospel of St. Mark in the Indian tongue, be- 
came the civil governor of his people, the teacher of his people at home, the negotiator 
for peace and good will among the tribes everywhere, and all the time laboring for 
the honor and independence of the nation, of which he was the master chief and spirit. 

Sir William Johnson knew how to win the support and friendship of the red man, 
and as a consequence the tribe made him their sachem. He learned their language, 
wore in part their costume, and gave them teachers, schools, and missionaries. "I 
have in view," he said, "the welfare of the Indians at large * * * Nothing can con- 
tribute to their present and future happiness as habits of virtue and morality * * * 
^rfected by instruction, * * * and enforced by example." In the preface to the 
Mohawk Prayer Book (1787) we find this tribute to Brandt : " This is only one out of 
many instances of his unremitting attention to the welfare of the Indians, who love 
and respect him as their particular friend. * * * He deserves great commendation 
for thus employing his time and talents to promote the honor of God and the spiritual 
welfare of his people." 

Of the lands and the Six Nations on the Grand Rapids, all that is left count about 
three thousand people, and these 'with laud enough on the Grand Rapids for ten times 
their present number. 

Third. The landing of the Ark and Dove, the two vessels which bore the followers 
of Leonard Calvert to the colony of Maryland, and the charter of Lord Baltimore, 
which tolerated and encouraged freedom of conscience and freedom of political and 
religious faith, making the people 'independent of the Crown, and on this basis of 
common sense and common integrity purchasing and paying for laud bought from the 
Indians, secured not only present friendly relations between the nations and the 
colony, but their promises of perpetual amity. The Indian women taught their strange 
visitors how to make bread of maize, and their chiefs and huntsmen where to find 
the best game of the forest. 

In the same spirit, more than once, and two hundred and fifty years gone by in the 
wilderness, and sometimes in the winters of New England, the" Indians gave their 
<5orn to save the white people from actual starvation. 

Fourth. In a conference called as this is, to protect the interests and character of 
the Indian race, it is proper to recall whatever occurred in the past to prove their 
friendly purposes and conduct. In this spirit we remind our countrymen of the brave, 
bold, and noble Miantanomah as the friend of the pure, true, and self-denying man 
Roger Williams. Banished from house and'kindred, the chief of the Narragausetts 
received him as he came solitary and alone upon an errand of mercy to save the 
lives of his white persecutors. He found the Pequod chiefs in counsel with the 
Narragansetts, urging the latter to join them in the instant destruction of the Puri- 
tans, who had invaded their homes. 

Roger Williams owed shelter, home, country, and life itself not alone to Mianta- 
nomoh, but to Massasoit, the chief of the Wainpauoags, and to Canonicus, the aged 
chief of the Narragansetts. They freely tendered him the land where he had chosen 
his place of rest as a home, and with it fellowship and perpetual peace. When the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COCMISSIONERS. 79 

Peqnod chiefs in council raised their tomahawks to strike him dead, without fear and 
without shame Williams claimed the protection due to a stranger, and Miantanoinah 
at once gave and pledged the hospitality of himself and his tribe. For three days 
this banished Christian man pleaded, and in the end successfully, for the very ene- 
.rnies who had made him an exile. A year later, 1637, the Pequods found the Narragan- 
setts their enemies, and in the first real Indian war the whole tribe of Pequods were 
exterminated. 

Fifth. That the continued invasions of the French, the Dutch, and the English upon 
Indian lands, and rights, and customs, compelled, in self-defence, the union of the 
Indian tribes against their intruders. The almost total extinction of the Pequods at 
the end of the Peqtiod war in 1637 caused the Narragansetts, and the Indians of the 
North and East generally, to believe that they read their own doom in the extinction 
of one of their great tribes. When the colonists combined against the Indians under 
Philip, Canonicus, the Indian father and rnler, was dead. Massasoit and Miantano- 
mah, though faithful in their friendship, were now too feeble to save their tribes 
from what was then regarded as a life and death struggle against invasion and destruc- 
tion. Where, under Lords Delaware and Gates, under Col. John Smith, William 
Penn, and others, the wise rule of the colonists had secured the good will of the In- 
dians, that good will was now lost, and it is a part of our mission to revive and re- 
store what was then lost, and, up to the present time, not yet found. The Indian, 
following the precedents I have cited, simply has no faith, judging from the past, in 
our covenants, compacts, treaties, or promises. 

The chief sources of wrong among the pale faces were the acts of the white people. 
The stealing of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, and the demand of a large ransom 
for her release, was the beginning of child stealing in America, while the conversion 
and marriage of this Indian girl to the missionary Rolfe is one of the grandest reve- 
lations of our early American history. All this came eight or nine years before the 
landing of the Pilgrims. 

In 1619 it was enacted, in the first political assembly of Virginia, that "the most 
towardly boys in wit and graces of nature should be brought up in the first elements 
of literature*, and sent from college to work for the conversion of the natives to the 
Christian religion." There were penalties for gaming, idleness, drunkenness, and even 
any excess in apparel in church was directly taxed. 

Sixth. The bloodiest of all the Indian wars the war of King Philip presents in 
contrast these two pictures: On one side the white colonists, in possession of the old 
Indian hunting-grounds, their forests, their pastures, and fishing-grounds. All these, 
and the old cabins and old homes were now held and owned by those who had driven 
them away, sometimes by the purchase of their lands and sometimes by force and 
fraud. 

Instead of the vast domain held years before, the allied tribes were now crowded 
into narrow necks and tongues of land. Almost literally, even then, they were driven 
toward the sea, and when upon its borders were told they had consented and con- 
tracted to forsake the broad lands of their forefathers. Even more than this, since 
in 1703 the government of Massachusetts paid 12 for every Indian scalp, in 1722, 
100, and in 1774 the colonial legislature passed a law giving a reward for Indian 
scalps. The French and English were the first to begin this. kind of warfare. 

The white men fought and conquered, and killed, in the name of God and the church, 
one thousand Indians in a single battle, and the Indians, in turn, scalped or killed 
white men, women, and often children within their reach, and burned almost every 
dwelling to which they could apply the torch. 

The Narragansetts finally met the fate of the Pequods. Philip preferred death to 
submission, and as his wife and son were borne away as prisoners, his words were, 
"My heart breaks; I am ready to die." It was Captain Church who struck off the 
head of the conquered chief, literally burying his body as so much carrion; and 
Philip's son was sold as a slave and sent to the island of Bermuda. 

The Narragansetts, now crowded from their homes, simply preferred death to con- 
quest, and these are the two chief pictures of King Philip's war. Let the Judge of all 
the Earth say in all these contests who were right and who were wrong. If in our 
time it is destiny to see the Indians gradually disappear from the face of the earth, it 
is at least manly and merciful for the Government and people to give them a decent 
and comfortable life while they live, and in the end a Christian burial. 

Seventh. That William Penn's first and second treaty with the Indians proves to 
governments and peoples the possibility and policy of peace, honor, and prosperity 
between the two races. " We meet," said the good Quaker king, under a large elm, 
which was blown down in 1810, on the banks of the Delaware, November, 1682, to the 
delegation of Indians assembled there to receive him, " We meet on the broad path- 
way of good faith and good will ; no advantage shall be taken on either side, but all 
shall be openness and love." And the chiefs of the tribes as they held their wampum- 
belt, called him Miquou, or elder brother, and answered, u We will live in love with 
William Penn and his children as long as the moon and sun shall endure or the river 



80 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

flow with water." And this treaty of peace, made by one who spoke only in the name 
of the Prince of Peace, and extending over all the land between the Delaware and 
Potomac, was never broken, and not one drop of Quaker blood was ever shed by an 
Indian. The heart of the Indian was as warm and his head as clear as the heart or 
head of any white man in the colonies which gave birth and life to the Government. 
It is enough to say that the peaceful treaty of Penn on the Delaware followed the 
bloody extermination of the Pequods and Narragansetts in New England. 

In the next century of the nation, 1796, history repeated itself by making war upon 
" the friendly Delawares," who had been, from the date of the treaty with Penn, as 
faithful to the white man as the white man, when he desired his lands, became false 
to him. "The money you offer us," they said, "give to the poor whites who have 
encroached upon our lands ; money is to us of no value, and, to most of us, unknown. 
No consideration whatever can induce us to sell the lands upon which we get suste- 
nance for our women and children." 

Eighth. Then, in sad contrast, came the Virginia massacre of 1622, four years after 
the death of Powhatan, as after the death of the father of the Narragansetts in the 
person of Canonicus came the massacre in New England. The younger brother of 
the former, like the son of the latter, could not pardon the constant encroachments of 
the strangers from the Old World. There was no mercy at Jamestown , on the Potomac, 
nor on the James River, as there was none in Massachusetts Bay and the province of 
Rhode Island in the wars of Philip and the Pequods. In both extremes the blood of 
the slain was first the seed of banishment and then almost of extermination. 

It needs not the memory of the charming young daughter of Powhatan, springing 
between the tomahawk raised to strike John Smith dead, her head almost resting 
upon the breast of the white man whose life she had saved, nor the gift of baskets 
of corn which followed to feed him and his countrymen, to prove the courage, the 
generosity, and the kindness of men and women of Indian blood. - 

In wide contrast, we may recite the conduct of George III in England, ordering the 
chiefs of his army to arm savage men to war upon Americans, and the bloody work 
inspired by the Johnsons in New York, on the Mohawk and elsewhere, to decoy and 
kill white men and families born upon the same soil where the Johnsons had made 
their homes as citizens of the New World. 

Ninth. The destruction of Wyoming Valley, in 1777, was after the manner of the 
bloody work of the British Tories, led by Col. John Butler, with his Tory Rangers, 
Royal Greens, and seven hundred Indians of the tribes known as the Six Nations. 
British gifts, in gold and valuables, promises without number, performances in almost 
boundless hospitality, suggested and encouraged these fearful tragedies. The cool- 
headed Sir William Johnson led first to a deliberately and stealthily advised invasion, 
and then came the remorseless murders of helpless women and children. No darker 
tragedies occurred during or before the War of the Revolution. It was the policy and 
practice of the British King and ministry to terrify the colonies, and this policy was 
persisted in to the end of the war. Not even the massacre at Cawnpore was as ter- 
rible as the slaughter at Wyoming. The Indians in time were terribly punished, 
Forty of their villages were bu r ned, and the British leaders who led the way to death 
were soon defeated in battle and disgraced throughout the civilized world. Men, no 
more than children, can play with fire. 

Tenth. The massacre'of Miss McCrea at Fort Edward by two Indian scouts one 
party quarreling with the other, though both were sent by the British officer and 
lover upon the same mission, which was to give safe convoy to the betrothed maid, 
taught the enemy that Indian allies might be as dangerous to friends as to foes. The 
Chippewas, Ottawas, Delawares, Senecas, Shawnees, Wyandottes, all now and then 
participated in this kind of double warfare. Burgoyne at the North, and Lord Howe 
at the South, were only too willing to encourage and to prosecute just this kind of 
savage strife. 

The teaching of bloody instructions, in Indian as in civilized life, experience 
too soon taught, only returns to plague the inventors. In the second war for inde- 
pendence, the crimes committed on the Mohawk and Wyoming were repeated. In 
the contest between the British commander, Colonel Proctor, and the American gen- 
eral, Winchester, the latter was taken prisoner. Terrified by Proctor's threat that 
his Indian allies would again be permitted to repeat their old-time massacres upon 
the frontier people, and having the assurance that if his little army would yield the 
frontier people should be protected, the surrender was made. As the result of this 
still living lie five hundred Americans were struck down by the tomahawk. Most of 
them came from the State known everywhere as " the dark and bloody ground of 
Kentucky." Then, and finally, came the battle of October, 1813, known as the battle 
of the Thames. The Americans were led by General Harrison, later on President of 
the United States, and one-half of the British army were Indians. The dreaded In- 
dian chief, Tecumseh, was then a full general in the British forces. He was in their 
ranks, and in the battle of the Thames in the very center of the army, and there in 
full command. The time had now come for Kentuckiaus to be avenged for the, slaughter 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 81 

of five hundred of her sons, most of them youug men and struck down under the order, 
of Colonel Proctor. You know the story ; it was Richard M. Johnson who pushed his 
meu upon the very center of the forces where Tecumseh led the way. It was not Jong 
before the chief fell dead at the feet of the Kentuckian, and thus the lives so treacher- 
ously taken were more than avenged. For two and a half centuries, from time to 
time, massacre, vengeance, and injustice have 'often cursed the two races of the Ameri- 
can people. 

The possible industry of the Indian race, under proper direction, has been a thou- 
sand times proved in the past and present century. Upon the evidence of Hudson, in 
1609, along the river which bears his name; of General Wayne, in 1794, along the Mi- 
ami, the Lake, and the Genesee, where miles of land were found in cultivation, the 
crops destroyed by fire were twice replanted the same year, in 1795. The widespread 
crops of the Delawares, after they had been once again cut down and the Indians 
driven from their homes, and by whom the beaver, buffalo and other game were 
caught upon the Rocky Mountains and elsewhere and sold to the white men, and the 
evidences in almost every Indian report, special and official, for two hundred and fifty 
years, prove these two facts: First, then, as with the Shawnees, Delawares, and since 
with other tribes, that they were robbed by civilized men and made drunk by them, 
and ruined in mind, body, and estate by the whisky forced upou them by so-called 
civilized men. The profits of the wages they earned upon their lands, the money paid 
to them for game they caught in their forests, the payments they received for lands 
taken from them by the Government ; iu a word, the general fruits of their labor 
have been dispersed not so much from the hand of knowledge, thrift, and industry 
as from the fruits of the old time and new time plunder, deception, and violence of 
their white neighbors. 

The first European interview with the American Indians, of which we have any 
record, was upon the banks of the Hudson. The name of the river was in honor of 
the discoverer, who starting from the Old World eleven years and two months before 
the embarkation of the Pilgrims, entered Sandy Hook just where the Mayflower later 
on was directed to sail. The Half Moon, a little yacht of 80 tons, passed Newfound- 
land, Cape Cod, Jamestown, and the Highlands just two hundred and eighty-four years 
ago, and in the month of September, from the hill tops, and almost in sight of the 
Hudson, the straugecomers were welcomed as " visitors from the Great Spirit." " Be- 
hold," said they, one to another, "the gods have come to visit us." The Indians of 
the river met them in throngs, received them as guests, gave them of their maize and 
beans and fish and game ; and where the city of Hudson now is, they tendered them 
more than a royal welcome. The harvest was over, and at least three ship loads of 
the corn and beans were gathered in, piled up in pyramids, and for protection covered 
in a building made of oak bark. The feast was as generous as mind and heart could 
desire, and when the commander of the Half Moon took leave of his hosts and left 
his anchorage opposite the Kaatskills on the bosom of the Hudson, these so-called 
savages broke their arrows into pieces as a pledge and symbol of perpetual peace. 

This, as far as is recorded, was the first visit in state of the white men to the red 
men of the forest, and it was a visit almost within gun shot of the spot where I speak. 
Of what followed in part I have spoken. 

The past is beyond recall. The present under Providence is within human control, 
and ought to be, may I not say will be, wisely directed. 

Congress has expended between $500,000,000 and $600,000,000 nominally for the In- 
dians and wasted thousands of lives. Where ten white inenjin Indian wars have been, 
killed, to avenge these ten lives twenty for one have been taken. Arms and money 
have been almost the only two weapons of conciliation hitherto used by the Govern- 
ment and its responsible representatives. 

With proper training for citizenship from the beginning, one-half of this money and 
four-fifths of the lives sacrificed might have been saved. We have made paupers 
where we might have made citizens. The Indian has no place in the Federal Consti- 
tution, none of Federal force in the constitutions of the States, and only a place of 
degradation in the general laws and legislation of the country. The truest native 
American of all has a place not in the rear only, but under the feet, or beyond the 
reach of the meanest and worst African, European, or Asiatic, the Chinese in part ex- 
cepted. For him there is no appeal to the law of the laud, or of force or legal form 
even in the law which belongs to mercy and humanity. The criminal in and out of 
prison and the pauper iu the poor house remains an American citizen, and thousands 
of these even with no birthright are made free by the law of the land. The American 
people need but to see and feel this injustice of man to man to change it at once, and 
forever. He is a freeman. 

INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO. 

Following Mr. Brooks, the remainder of the evening was occupied by the Rev. H. O. 
Ladd, president of the University of New Mexico at Santa F6, and by R. W. D. Bryan, 

H. Ex. 109 6 



82 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

principal of Albuquerque Indian School, New Mexico. The former spoke especially 
of the Pueblo Indians around Santa F6, and the latter of the Pueblos and Navajos, 
giving many interesting facts to demonstrate their present advancement and their 
capability for development. 

SECOND DAY MORNING SESSION. 

At the opening of the morning session Dr. Rhoads, for the business committee, sub- 
mitted a statement of principles as a basis for discussion. [As finally modified and 
adopted by the conference the statement will be found in full in the report of Friday 
morning's session.] 

The discussion of the morning was devoted (1) to the question of citizenship, whether 
it should be immediate or gradual ; (2) to the meaning of the word " absorption" or 
"intermingling," and (3) to the question of treaty-keeping where the treaties are of 
detriment to the best interests of the Indians. 

Dr. RHOADS. "The business committee, in presenting some propositions for the 
consideration of this conference, wish to emphasize their conviction of the great im- 
portance of unanimity on the part of the conference and of the friends of the Indian, 
both as to the principles which should guide their action and as to methods, so far 
as possible. In the first place, there are two classes of agencies acting for the benefit 
of the Indian. The first and great one is the Government of the United States; and 
it is of serious moment that this conference, as representing the friends of the Indian, 
shall do all in its power 'to strengthen the hands of the President, the Secretary of 
the Interior, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and other officers engaged in Indian 
management. They must have perplexities and difficulties greater than we can un- 
derstand, and they need to feel that we stand in no attitude of criticism, but in one 
of earnest helpfulness, in which we bid them God speed. Moreover, we must bear 
with their limitations, for the wisest must have these. We must pass by what may 
sometimes seem to us unwise, and give them our hearty support; and only when we 
think they are making some positive mistake as to principle or method, should we 
express our views to the contrary. In presenting these propositions, it is with confi- 
dence that the conference will discuss them with entire freedom. This report is not 
what is to go before the public, but is to be discussed here, then sent to the commit- 
tee, and finally, go out to the country as the voice of the conference." 

General ARMSTRONG spoke adversely to the immediate granting of citizenship, ex- 
cept to these tribes which are fitted for it. He had no prejudices against the mingling 
of the races. The process is going on all the time, and will ultimately result in ab- 
sorption. The total number of Indians, so called, is increasing, while the number of 
pure-bloods is diminishing. He was earnestly in favor of educating the Indian, plac- 
ing him upon land of bis own, giving him all he can possibly use, and then selling 
the rest to Government and funding the proceeds, to be used for his permanent bene- 
fit and advancement. As to the changing of treaties, the proposition does not imply 
any breach of faith. It contemplates changes by negotiation, by securing the red 
maVs consent. It is in accord with the spirit of the Coke bill and the Dawes bill, 
which bills also favor immediate action in allotting lands in severalty. He was ut- 
terly opposed to any arrangement which would allow the Indians to huddle together, 
if they want to, like the Onondagas of New York, holding their lands forever to the 
exclusion of civilizing influences. That was the way to fasten barbarism upon them 
in perpetuity. The resolutions contemplated a possible contingency which it was 
hoped would never arise, namely, failure to secure Indian consent to needed treaty 
changes. 

"The contingency which is possible is embodied in this resolution: 'Every reason- 
able effort to get the consent of the Indian, but if the consent of a tribe cannot be 
obtained, then its execution without their consent.' It means that if the Indians re- 
fuse all overtures in meeting the inevitable growth of our country and the advance 
of civilization, then going to their reservations and taking such lands as \ve find un- 
occupied, giving them a full value therefor. It means that, at the rate civilization 
is advancing, with its ragged, rough edge, where it finds resources which nobody is 
developing, then it develops them ; where it finds industrious people it incorporates 
them. If you think there is any harshness in this, remember that it is done with a 
feeling that we must save them from themselves. If it were not for this imminent, 
terrible fact, that things cannot stay as they are, it would not be so. It is the spirit 
of the country, of its inevitable growth. 

"Now comes the question if the Indians choose, in their ignorance, not to accept 
our terms, shall they be ground up ? Shall they become vagabonds on the face of the 
earth ? 

"The seventh resolution is: 'If there are wild tribes abs6lutely incapable of being 
brought into harmony with civilization, then placing them under such guard as will 
prevent Indian outbreaks.' That simply means that, if the Indians break loose from 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 83 

civil restraint and all the ordinary care, such as Indian police, take the war-path, and 
fight, then give them over to the national police. There are two kinds of police for 
the Indians the Indian police and the national arm. Out of the whole 262,000 In- 
dians, there are about 3,000 who need the national police. Take the Navajos; possi- 
bly there are nineteen out of twenty who are to-day controlled by Indian police. 
Something ought to be said about this Indian police; they are a great success. We 
don't want the military in their place. At Standing Rock, at Rosebud, and at Pine 
Ridge the Indians are governing themselves. They are their own officers, and there 
is nothing like it; it builds up their manhood. When they break out, then we want 
the national police. We have no better men than Generals Crook and Miles, no bet- 
ter educated Christian men for police work with the Indians when the Regular Army 
is called upon. I challenge any one to do better civilizing work. 

" Eighth resolution: Maintenance of Indian agencies, or some equivalent repre- 
sentatives ot the United States Government, to look after the Indians' interest, &c. 
If the Indians are left without any protection they are exposed to various evils. Rum 
is their greatest enemy. In any case, if put on lands of their own, they would need 
the care of good men. I have visited nearly every important agency this side of the 
Rocky Mountains, and cannot but feel that they need good men to look after them. 

" Ninth resolution : Lands in severalty. In regard to that resolution, I can only 
express once more ray heartiest indorsement of it, as being the best way for working 
out the whole problem. This approves the Coke bill ; if, however, the patents in the 
Coke bill shall give the Indians the permanent right to remain in their old possessions, 
I should have my doubts on this point. 

"The tenth: Placing Indian children in industrial schools. That needs no discus- 
sion. It is pushing the present system ; appropriations that would supply every gov- 
ernment school with a complete outfit for industrial training, which will require much 
more than is being done now. The Government has provided twenty-five assistant 
farmers ; there should be two or three times that number. If good farmers were pro- 
vided they would teach this work at the agencies ; they would teach the tribes how 
to irrigate their lauds, and take care of the water, particularly in a country where 
they are liable to the loss of everything by the tapping of the water. Perhaps one 
farmer to every one hundred families would answer. About half the men now en- 
gaged as farmers are not fit for the work ; they are not farmers ; they should be com- 
petent men." 

Professor. PAINTER. " I wish Dr. Abbott, or somebody else, would lead oflfin a discus- 
sion of the main issue. It is simply a question of whether we shall begin the work 
of civilizing the Indian and end this problem, or whether we shall perpetuate the 
present state of things. I think there is no question but that the reservation sys- 
tem the system of isolation and non-absorption has held the Indian aloof from our 
civilization and denied him the opportunities of a citizen and a man. This process 
continued indefinitely will continue the problem. The difficulties of this reservation 
system are immense ; it is an incubus upon every effort for the advancement of the 
Indian. The simple proposition of the committee I think is thin : Are we still to con- 
tinue the present state of things, or has the time come to considerthe uprooting of this 
whole evil and the system which perpetuates it f I maintain that the problem with 
which we are to deal has grown out of our wrong policy. In regard to the imme- 
diateness of citizenship, I have always believed that certain qualifications were nec- 
essary for the discharge of the duties of citizenship, but inasmuch as we haverequired 
no such qualifications on the part of many whom we have taken into our body politic, 
and to whom we have given the opportunities of citizenship by the million, I have no 
particular objection to extend the ballot to such Indians as you can chase down, lasso, 
and bring to the polls. I do not think that fifty thousand Indians, scattered over the 
country, armed with the ballot would create any great damage to our institutions, 
and I think it would be some protection to the Indian in his own neighborhood. I 
believe if a man is in the water that we should take him out, and do it immediately. 

" The point in regard to which we are likely to differ will be as to whether this 
shall be done where a treaty stands in the way, and the Indian will not consent to a 
modification of that treaty. If forced to face this, we should consider under what 
circumstances many of these treaties were made, and the purpose for which they were 
made, and the manner in which they were made. I don't know in regard to all of 
them, but I do know how we attempted to secure a modification of a treaty recently 
with the Sioux, and how that modification would undoubtedly have been ratified by 
Congress had it not been defeated by the Indian Rights Association. The question is 
whether a treaty which has been negotiated in such a way as to be hurtful to the In- 
dian shall be regarded as sacred and remain a bar to his progress. We sent out a 
commission a short time ago to secure a modification of a treaty. I went to those In- 
dians to see how it had been done, for it was claimed that they had given their con- 
sent. I asked them if they did so and so, and if they consented? They said no ; they 
were not willing to do so. 'Did they make any other proposition?' 'Yes.' 'Did 
you accept?' 'No.' ' Did you sign this agreement F 'Yes.' 'What was promised 



84 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

yon?' 'It was not what they promised us that made us sign it, but what they 
threatened to do to ns. They threatened to cut off our annuities under the old treaties 
and to remove us to the Indian Territory. They told us this would be done, and we, 
fearing we should have ho more homes, no more land, and no more annuities, signed 
it.' They had been kept about the agency for twn weeks in terribly cold weather, 
and their signatures, obtained under threats, would have been regarded as evidence 
of a treaty by which millions of acres would have been taken from them. We sent 
out to the Bitter Root Valley to enforce a treaty with Charlos, which he said he 
never signed. Mr. Vest said, 'You have signed a treaty, and you must keep it and 
leave this valley.' This Charlos denied, and would not remove. The treaty had been 
published with his name attached, but when the original treaty was unearthed from 
the archives at Washington, we found Gharlos's name was not on it. Take the case 
of Joseph's baud of Nez Perec's Indians as another illustration of my point. The Nez 
Perec's were living in the beautiful Walla Walla Valley, which had always been their 
home. We wanted it. After much crowding we were able to negotiate a treaty for 
its surrender. We made a treaty which gave them a reservation in Idaho, and to the 
father of Joseph and his band, the Wallula Valley in Washington Territory. Soon 
the pressure was great that he should surrender this also and join his people at Lap- 
wai. He refused, and after his death Joseph refused also. We then went to the 
Indians at Lapwai and made an agreement with them that Joseph should cede his 
lands. The enforcement of this arrangement made with a third party, who had no 
right in the premises, was the cause of the Nez Perec's war. In violation of the terms 
on which we accepted his surrender, we sent him to the Indian Territory, where for 
ten years or more we have supported at an annual expense of $20,000 a people who 
only asked to be allowed to support themselves on their own lands. Congress yielded 
to the pressure of public opinion, and consented this spring to take back the feeble 
remnant which has survived, and now they have reached the neighborhood of their 
old home where no lands have, as yet, been assigned them, and too late to raise any- 
thing for their own support, and are informed by the Department that as they have 
been taken back at their own request, the Government has no farther responsibility 
regarding them. They have been generously furnished one-eighth rations for the 
current year. 

" I could illustrate by many other cases the sacred character of our so-called treaties 
with Indians ; many so-called treaties were made in this way. When \n e nave wanted 
anything for the white man which the treaty secured to the Indians, we have said, 
'The Indian is our ward, and we must do what we think is best for him.' We have 
enacted laws for his control which we never would have done for a foreign people 
with whom we made treaties ; but our treaties have not stood in the way when we 
have found it for the advantage of the white man to disregard its obligations; and 
when it suits our convenience to do so, we say it is a solemn treaty which we must 
not break. If we had made a treaty with the Indian that he might have unlimited 
whisky in exchange for land, and the Indian refused to modify the treaty, most of 
us would say that we must not do him a great wrong even if we had bound ourselves 
by such a treaty to do it. I wish to call attention again to the fact that the busi- 
ness committee has not offered resolutions to be voted upon. It has simply offered 
propositions to be discussed, hoping to get the range of your guns, and that the sub- 
ject matter of discussion will be referred to this, or some other committee, to be 
offered subsequently in the form of resolutions for adoption." 

Judge STRONG. "I take great interest in what this conference is intending to do. 
I feel the necessity of much that is proposed, and it has my hearty assent. I am 
desirous to promote the Christianization and civilization of all the Indians in this 
country, and I am one of those who think it desirable that the Indians should be dis- 
persed or diffused throughout our population ; that they should not be preserved on 
reservations, if it is possible to avoid it; that they should not be encouraged to live 
in bodies ; that they should not maintain their own language and habits, but b 
brought into contact with the better portion of our communities scattered throughout 
the land, where they might be brought under good influences, and ultimately be 
Americanized. I would not desire to see a great body of Irishmen herded together, 
but scattered throughout the country ; and it is the same with the Indian. We know 
how we suffered in Pennsylvania by the Germans living together, speaking their own 
language and reading their own books for seventy-five years, being a distinct people 
in the center of Pennsylvania. They suffered, and the State also. But we have all 
discovered that, when an Irishman comes and settles here, and another there, they 
soon become good Americans. If the Indians could be scattered, with a farm here 
and a farm there, it would be the speediest mode of civilizing them and making them 
useful citizens, but this thing must be done honestly. I do not believe in doing evil 
that good may come. This thing must be done consistently with the solemn obliga- 
tions of the Government. We began by making treaties with these Indian tribes ; 
we treated them as independent tribes. It was a little absurd; it was within our 
borders a little imperium inimperio. But we did not recognize them as independent. 



REPOET OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 85 

We said to them, 'You may occupy these lands, but you can't sell them to anybody 
but the United States. We have a right to take these lands when you abandon them. 
We give them to you as a tribe.' Thus have we made scores of treaties with the 
Indians; they were solemn obligations. We said solemnly we would keep those 
treaties. Now it was said by the last speaker that in many of these treaties we 
cheated the Indians. We did, undoubtedly, get much more from them than they 
from us, but the treaties gave something to them. Now, are we to set aside those 
treaties because we cheated? The Indians have certain securities to the possession 
of their lands. Now, admitting that we have treated them uufaiily, is it our part 
to say, 'We treated you unfairly; therefore, we ^fill take away what we gave 
you ? ' No ; Mr. Chaiiman, we have done many things, of which we ought to repent, 
but let us not violate the treaties we have made. Why, sir, a treaty is the most 
solemn obligation into which a Government can enter, a casus belli. War cannot 
occur between the United States and these tribes, for they are too feeble. Can we 
stand in the face of a Christian community, and say we will disregard these treaties 
with these feeble, dying tribes? No, sir; the friends of the Indian cannot afford to 
have it go out to the country that this conference disregards these treaties. Ah ; but 
one of these resolutions says, if you cannot get the consent of the Indian to the modi- 
fication of these treaties, then you must annul them, but give an equivalent. Can 
you treat a neighbor in this way ? I will not perform what I have promised, but I 
will give an equivalent. Who is to measure the equivalent? The United States is 
to measure what the equivalent shall be, when they take away these lands of the In- 
dians and devote them to some other purpose than that of the "treaty. No, sir; I will 
never consent to any such thing as to say that they shall be altered by force. But I 
do believe it is possible to obtain from the Indians a modification or annulment of 
these treaties. In many cases the Indians have made some advance towards civili- 
zation ; they want their lands in severally, all being the several owners of lauds. Now, 
let the Government go to those Indians and say, 'We will give you lands in severalty 
if you will give up that treaty, and, if necessary, we will give you an outfit for engag- 
ing in agriculture.' How many Indian families are there? About 50,000. Suppose 
we give 160 acres to a family, and I must say I am opposed to giving to the husband 
a certain quantity, and to the wife a certain quantity, and to the child another. I 
want the Indians brought together in families. There can never be any civilization 
without families. I would have the head of the family have the land, and have it 
descend to his wife and children. I believe it possible for the Indian tribes to obtain 
a revocation or a modification of those treaties, so that they shall not stand in the 
way of distributing their lands in severalty. I believe many Indian tribes are in a 
condition to receive lauds in severalty, and that it would stimulate their ambition 
and lead to habits of acquisitiveness, which is important to them. If they could be 
kept away from the whisky shops, they would begin to accumulate property, and to 
that extent I am in favor of these resolutions. I am not in favor of admitting to citi- 
zenship any persons certainly, no Indians to whom lands have not been allotted in 
severalty ; otherwise it would be worthless to the Indian and injurious to the white 
people of the country. I cannot, therefore, vote for the first resolution. The im- 
mediate admission of the Indians to all the rights of citizenship, including suffrage, I 
cannot agree to that. I am in favor of their being admitted to citizenship as rapidly 
as there is any degree of fitness for it. I believe all those Indians, who have lauds in 
severalty, ought to be admitted to citizenship; but whether to admit them to the 
suffrage is another question. 1 am greatly in favor of education. Suffrage is not 
an indispensable requisite to citizenship. I agree that all the lands of the reserva- 
tions, so far as the treaties will allow, should be sold. I do not know about the ap- 
praised value. Who is to appraise it ? The United States ? I am inclined to think 
that it would be no more than fair to the Indian to appraise it at the value at which 
the United States sold its own domains, $1.25 an acre. Then the proceeds should be 
set apart for the benefit of the Indians. I do not know enough about Indian agencies 
to give an opinion, but I am in favor of the most rapid education of the Indian pos- 
sible. They should have industrial education, and no place is better for that than 
the Carlisle and Hampton schools, both of which I have some knowledge of. If we 
could take these 50,000 Indian children, and put them in schools at an expense of 
some millions of dollars to the United States, teaching them the trades and employ- 
ments of civilized life, and then send them back to their homes, the Indian problem 
would be solved. In ten years the parents would have passed away, the greater part 
of them, and a new race would come up. I long to see that, sir. I want to see this 
Government spend not only all it has agreed to, but millions more, so that these wards 
of the nation may have a fair opportunity to become useful American citizens. We 
cannot afford to take a dishonest course." 

On motion of General Whittlesey, the preamble and resolutions were recommitted, 
and Justice Strong, Dr. William H. Ward, Hon. Erastus Brooks, and Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher were added to the business commitee. 

Recess till evening. 



86 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

SECOND DAY EVENING SESSION. 

Senator Henry L. Dawes, of Massachusetts, was introduced at the evening session, 
and spoke as follows : 

SENATOR DAWES'S ADDRESS. 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen : I did not know that I could better acknowledge 
on behalf of those on whom legislation for the Indian has devolved their indebted- 
ness to this association and to the kindred associations throughout the land that have 
stimulated, if not inaugurated, the policy by which that legislation is controlled at 
the present time than by making the endeavor for I know I shall fail to carry it 
out completely to present to you what has already been accomplished by the new 
policy with reference to the Indian. And I shall equally fail if I undertake to tell 
you what is necessary to be done hereafter. But so far as I can I will endeavor to 
answer both these propositions. 

This policy is a new one. It is but a few years old, at best. Up to that time it was 
the study of the Government, as well as of philanthropists and others, to discover the 
best way to solve this Indian problem. Various methods have been tried in the past, 
some of them prompted by the best of feelings towards an unfortunate race that peo- 
ple believed was fading out, and would soon pass out of sight and memory in this 
country forever ; and some were hastening on, or endeavoring to hasten on, what they 
supposed was the inevitable, and thought the sooner it was accomplished the better. 
Thos f 5 who controlled the Government tried every method to got rid of the burden of 
the Indian. We broke our treaties with him and drove him out of his reservations; 
we hunted him w r ith our arms; we spent millions of dollars in endeavoring to slay 
him, but all in vain. He kept on increasing in this land. He kept upon us the bur- 
den we could not relieve ourselves of; and he way constantly in the way. Like the 
negro, he was always present. And it only came to appear to this people seven or eight 
years ago that it was utterly in vain to attempt to get clear of the Indian, and that we had 
better see if we could not make something of him. So the division line between the 
present policy and the past is drawn here ; in the past the Government tried, by fair 
means or foul, to rid itself of the Indian. The present policy is to make something of 
him. 

That policy had its origin almost in an accident. Eight or nine years ago the Gov- 
ernment sent Captain Pratt with warriors, covered with the blood of a merciless 
war, from the Indian Territory down to Florida ; and Captain Pratt, in the discharge 
of his duty, undertook to relieve himself of the labor of keeping these warriors in 
idleness, no matter if the work was of no service to anybody, if it would keep them 
out of idleness. With this end in view he got permission to let them pick stones out 
of the streets. Then he enlisted ladies to teach them to read. Out of that experiment 
of Captain Pratt's has come all the rest. Behold what a great fire a little matter has 
kindled! After seeing the success of that small beginning he begged the friends at 
Washington to take these young warriors TO General Armstrong's school at Hampton. 
General Armstrong was carrying on a school for freedmen exclusively. It was a long 
time before the War Department would consent to take them there. He took them 
there by the help of General Armstrong, and they made just so many men out of those 
bloody warriors. Captain Pratt told me that all but one of those prisoners of war 
were now honest, industrious, honorable, and respected citizens of the United States, 
earning; their livelihood and exerting a good influence. Then came Carlisle ; and then 
came the mixture of Indians with the freedmen at General Armstrong's school ; and 
then came all the other training schools. Then came, also, eighty boarding-schools, 
and while before that day comparatively little was done for the education of the young 
Indian, Government last year appropriated $1,100,000 for the purpose, and more than 
fifteen thousand Indian children were attending school. The training-schools have 
turned out goods to be sold in the markets, and to furnish the reservations with shoes, 
tin-ware, wagons, harness, &c., and more than all that, they have turned out well- 
trained young men, who have gone out to seek opportunities for usefulness to their 
tribe. We have undertaken, also, by appropriations to teach them farming. We 
have appropriated money for assistant farmers to go and stand by each one of those 
Indians the moment he desires to take up land in severalty. Under this new policy 
Miss Fletcher has been inspired to go to Washington and prepare a bill, under which 
every one of the Omaha tribe has been set up in severalty, on a home of his own, 
maintaining himself and family, and furnishing the fruits of his industry for the 
markets of Omaha, and all the remainder of the Omaha Reservation has been sold 
and the proceeds put at interest for their benefit. A single agent, under the inspira- 
tion of this new policy, up at the Devil's Lake Agency in Dakota, has put every one 
of his Indians on farms of their own, where they raised last year 18,000 bushels of 
wheat and all the produce necessary for their own support. After accomplishing this, 
this agent went down to Standing Rock, where there are 35,000 Indians, including 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 87 

Sitting Bull, and under the inspiration of this same policy be put one-third of them 
upon farms. Let him alone two or three years longer and three-fourths of these In- 
dians, who ten years ago were wild Indians, will be farmers, maintaining themselves 
by their own hands. No one can read the letters Miss Ludlow is publishing in the 
Boston Journal without becoming enthusiastic in this work; without feeling that 
this work is one in which he can afford to spend his strength, and to which, as the 
gentleman said last night, he can well consecrate himself. 

To my mind there is enough in it now and here, this very hour, without troubling 
ourselves with speculations as to plans for the future. I want to see this policy as it 
is pushed to its utmost, and to have every new element and device brought into its 
work in the school, in the family, on the reservation, in the agency, and everywhere ; 
everything that will contribute to the carrying out of this policy which takes the in- 
dividual Indian aud treats him as a man, and tries to build him up and make some- 
thing of him, and recogniz.es the fact that he is a child and must be taught everything 
a child is taught, to say nothing of that of which he must be unlearned. The Indian 
has grown up under the old policy of the Government in ignorance of what he was 
made for, or what he is capable of being, and the idea that yon can by enactment set 
him upon his feet and bid him walk is, to my mind, futile and absurd. Along with 
this policy, and as a part of it, we have a great many schemes of good, honest people, 
desirous of contributing to the same ends ; but they sometimes perplex and embarrass. 
Take this idea of laud in severalty. Two or three years ago the whole laud was full 
of it. Everybody was saying, "All you will ever get out of it will be to give the In- 
dian land in severalty, and then let him take care of himself." My friend Whittlesey 
will excuse me if I allude to what he said last night. He proposes to say to the In- 
dian race "Root, hog, or die." There is a good deal of philosophy in that phrase, but 
it was not applied to a human being who has a soul, or who is capable of being made 
a human being. You did not apply it to the freedman when you knocked off his 
shackles. 

General WHITTLKSEY. I did not use that language ; I quoted St. Paul. 

Mr. DAWKS. If St. Paul was here and had 250,000 Indians on his hands, whom the 
United States had sought for one hundred years to rob of every means of obtaining 
a livelihood, aud had helped bring up in ignorance, he never would have said to them 
"He that will not work, shall not eat." You did not say that to the poor black man ; 
you did not say that to the little children whom you sent by contribution ou>t into the 
country for fresh air, and you ought not to say it to this poor helpless race, helpless 
in their ignorance, and ignorant because we have fostered their ignorance. We have 
appropriated more money to keep them in absolute darkness, and heathenism, and 
idleness, than would have been required to send every one of them to college, and 
^now we propose to turn them out. We did not relieve ourselves of the responsibility 
'by that indifference ; we have got to take them by the hand like little children and 
bring them up out of this ignorance, for they multiply upon our hands, and their 
heritage is being wrenched away from them, and good men as well as bad are devis- 
ing means to take it away. 

What is to become of them then? Have we done our duty to this people when we 
have said to them : " We will scatter you and let yout>ecoine isolated and vagabonds 
on the earth, and then we will apply to you the philosophic command, ' Go, take care 
of yourselves ; we have every dollar of your possessions, every acre of your heritage; 
we have killed more of your fellows than there are of you left; we have burnt your 
little homes, and now we have arrived at the conclusion that it is time to take away 
from you the last foot of ground upon which you can rest, and we shall have done 
our duty when we command you to take care of yourselves?'" That is not the way I 
read it ; I know how sincere and honest, aud probably as near right everybody else 
is, but I am only telling how I feel. I feel just this ; that every dollar of money, and 
every hour of effort that can be applied to each individual Indian, day and night, in 
season and out of season, with patience and perseverance, with kindness and with 
charity, is not only due him in atonement for what we have inflicted upon him in 
the past, but is our own obligation towards him in order that we may not have him 
a vagabond and a pauper, without home or occupation among us in this land. One 
or the other is the alternative ; he is to be a vagabond about our streets, begging 
from door to door, aud plundering our citizens, or he is to be taken up and made a 
man among us; a citizen of this great republic, absorbed into the body politic and 
made a useful and influential citizen. 

I have stated these things briefly, but cannot call to mind all the grand results we 
have accomplished under thrs policy ; a policy that has stimulated us, created a new 
sentiment, and found its life and force among the good people of this country, and it 
has become necessary for us to find out how, by authority of law, this thing which I 
have said it is our duty to accomplish can be brought about. 

It soon became evident that no one rule could be applied to all these Indians ; that 
no one method could lift them all out of their degradation and darkness into light and 
manhood. That which would do for the strong and stalwart Indians in Dakota would 



88 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

not do for the Pueblos in New Mexico ; that which was the thing on the Omaha Res- 
ervation was the last thing to be done on the Navajo Reservation ; that heroic treat- 
ment which was required by the warlike Crows in Montana was nothing but absolute 
cruelty when applied to the gentle Indians in Southern California, or the hard-work- 
ing Indians in Northern California, so that one law and a uniform system is impossible. 
What will you do then? There is no authority of law existing now ; somebody must 
be clothed with the authority of law to do with a tribe what its necessities demand. 
Is not that rational? If you clothe anybody with authority and then undertake to 
prescribe what he shall do, you block his work. It is impossible to do exactly with 
one Indian as you do with another, so legislators said that somebody must be author- 
ized to do the work. To take this policy and carry it out somebody has got to be 
trusted. Of course, you are liable to tOTSt a bad man, and that is a misfortune ; but 
you are no more likely to trust a bad man than you are when you trust three hun- 
dred. You must take the risk. Out of this has come what is called the Coke bill. 
It has been a slow growth ; the germ originated with Secretary Schurz and Senator 
Kirkwood. Then it came before the Committee of Indian Affairs in the Senate, and 
they worked a month or two upon it, and at last brought it before Congress, and it 
was debated three weeks. After that, and when it got much into the condition of 
your resolutions of this morning, it was recommitted to that committee, and they 
took it up, and debated, and amended, and out of that came the Coke bill as it is 
now, and every Senator voted for it. I do not claim any merit for my part in it, but 
seventy-five other and very respectable men took hold of it, and they believed, upon 
careful examination, and after every feature of it was explained, that it was the 
wisest measure they could devise. It is with some confidence, therefore, that I take 
up that bill to-night, with your permission and your patience, and try to tell you what 
it endeavors to do. 

The purpose of the bill is to clothe the Secretary of the Interior with all the power 
he needs to do everything in respect to the Indian that every one of you said to-day 
he wanted to have done. It is, first, to put the Indian in severalty on a farm ; next, 
after having done that, to sell all the rest of his reservation ; next, to give him all the 
rights and privileges of any white man in the courts. When it was drawn, it was 
supposed he was a citizen, and if it is ever introduced again it will have a provision 
that makes him a citizen. It provides also, if any Indian does not want to stay on 
his reservation, that the Secretary of the Interior shall give him a farm somewhere 
else, wherever he, the Indian, may choose to select it on the public domain. I think 
that will scatter him as much as you wish, unless it is proposed to get a tribe together 
and then say " Scatter!" But if you intend to let an Indian select his own home, he 
can go anywhere on the public domain he wishes, and ask the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior to give him one of these patents of 160 acres. He is obliged to give it to him, 
and that is not all; it looks out for him afterwards. It doesn't give him the deed, 
and say, " Go, " and then allow a white man with a jug of whisky to come and take the 
land away from him, nor a hostile community to take it. It gives it in such a way 
that neither the United States nor he can part with it ; that nobody can levy a tax, and 
no contract with respect to it shall be valid that is made before the end of twenty- 
five years. It goes on the theory that every Indian who is capable of knowing what a 
farm is, and what men do on a farm, and wants to do that himself, shall have a farm 
of 160 acres, and shall select it himself, and then the United States and he together 
shall hold the title, the United States holding it exclusively for him, if he happens 
to die before the twenty-five years. At that time it is presumed he will so under- 
stand himself and his farm, and his neighbors, that he can be trusted to sell it. Then 
the United States is to give him an absolute deed with the great seal on it, and it has 
got to be absolutely free at that moment. It must be in the beginning upon his res- 
ervation, because that belongs to him and it is a part of his heritage. It provides, 
however, for just the contingency suggested this morning the desirability of getting 
these Indians spread out and brought into contact with civilization. Most kinds of 
civilization have a wonderful effect upon the Indian ; I wish all civilization did. 
Again, under this bill, it must be the Indian's choice. It is now supposed that you 
can take an Indian against his will by the nape of his neck, if I may say so tell him 
to be a farmer and then go off and leave him, but you can't make anything of him 
under that process. An Indian will not make much of a farmer unless he can be in- 
spired with a desire to be one, and unless you show him how. It is a work of time ; I 
heard a proposition h< j re this morning to abolish the reservations immediately ; but the 
Coke bill does not go on that principle. It goes upon the principle that one of the dif- 
ficulties of making a farmer out of the Indian is the uncertainty of his tenure to his 
laud. You can make nothing out of the Indian unless you make a home for him. 
That is the starting point of civilization. Unless you can make him feel that his home 
is a permanent one, and take away that feeling of uncertainty about it the feeling that 
the white man is liable at any time to come and take away his home he will have 
no desire to improve it. But when he comes to understand^that the first thing about 



REPORT* OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 89 

his home is that it is his absolutely aud cannot be taken away, you have a basis upon 
which you can arouse in him a desire to make that home better than it is. 

Now, I want to show you a feature of the bill which has struck some with alarm. 
There are three kinds of titles : First, a treaty title ; second, a statute title ; and third, 
a reservation under an Executive title. A statute title is one created by statute since 
we passed a law that there should, be no more treaties made. It is another name for 
the treaty title. This bill provides that in all cases bands and tribes, either by vir- 
tue of treaty stipulations or by act of Congress, shall have this patent. It is confined 
to these two. The title by Executive order is not included here, because the title by 
Executive order is created by (.he President's will, and can be modified to-inorrow 
or extinguished altogether. Therefore, the Indians have no interest in it, but the 
title by treaty and statute is a title by purchase. They have bought that land in 
every instance and they have paid for it. Every treaty title is a title in exchange 
for something else. Take the great Sioux Reservation, covered by the treaty of 1868. 
They bought this land, and the United States covenanted with them that 'they should 
occupy it forever. That made a title-deed as perfect as yours to your home, and if 
anybody should attempt to disturb them in it if they were citizens so that they 
could go into court they could hold it against the United States or anybody else. 
Aud the proposition to give a patent for that is only a proposition to exchange one 
title-deed for another. It is only to provide for what may happen hereafter, viz, 
when an Indian wants a piece of land in severalty he shall have a patent in severalty 
which shall supersede this. This patent has no other force than the matter of con- 
venience. It does not alter the Indian's legal status one atom. He has a right to hia 
deed, just the same as you have to yours, and to talk of taking that land from them, 
without their consent for their good is the same as talking about taking away our 
neighbor's title to his home for his good. We may think it for his good, and doubtless 
it would be, but how would you like to have your town vote that it would be for your 
good to move somewhere else, and they take your home? It would be no different 
from this proposition. It might be for your good, but then it was your home. 

Now, there is no bugbear in that patent; it is as innocent as a piece of paper. It 
goes upon the theory that all the tribes who hold reservations may own their laud. 
It goes upon the idea that you can do the most good by keeping faith with the Indian. 
You can do nothing with him when he thinks you do not keep your word. You go 
to the Indians on the Sioux Reservation and say : "We propose to treat with you, and 
get your consent, if we can ; but, if we cannot, we propose to go ahead .just the same." 
That is like the Vicar of Wakefield's son, who went, with his father's horse, to the 
market to sell it, when asked his price, he said: "I ask $60 for him, if I can get it, 
but, if I can't get that, I will take $40." Have not we been asking to have these 
treaties kept ever since this new policy was born and nursed by that valiant and 
glorious band of women in Philadelphia, who went around the country obtaining 
signatures to petitions to Congress, calling upon Congress to keep its obligations to 
the Indians? That noble woman, Mrs. Quinton, came with a petition, upon which 
were 100,000 names, rolled up in the national colors as most fitting, and the first 
prayer was to observe these treaty obligations. She found members of both Houses 
to stand up with that magnificent petition and pledge themselves to maintain the 
treaty obligations of the United States. [Applause.] Of course, every other citizen 
is at liberty to do as he pleases, but those who committed themselves there, and have 
striven, in season and out, to maintain these treaty obligations, and protect the right 
of the Indian against the encroachments of those who make it a business to protect 
the treaties only so far as their own interests are concerned, cannot go back on them- 
selves. They have no moral ground on which to stand but to keep their faith. It 
may cost something, but it is no credit to a man to keep a profitable bargain. It does 
not cost much to .keep a contract when you make something by it. He alone is a man 
who keeps a contract to his cost. The Bible says that " He that sweareth to his own 
hurt, and changeth not, shall be honored." Therefore, I beg of you, not to ask of 
these men in Congress, who stand before the country, committed, that they shall 
openly violate the solemn treaties they have made. This bill goes upon the theory 
that we are to work out this Indian problem by keeping our faith. Somebody said 
that, under this bill, it would be utterly impossible to distribute these Indians; they 
would have to be huddled together upon their reservation. If they want their lauds 
in severalty upon their own reservation they must have it there, for you cannot force 
them. But, if they want it anywhere else, here is what the bill says about it. [Reads 
from Coke bill.] 

Now can you devise any more efficient and practical way of diffusing him and scat- 
tering him? He can go any where he pleases upon lands unappropriated. And when 
he is prepared, when he understands what this means, when he desires to profit by 
it, and when he has the allotment made, what then ? [Reads " Upon the completion 
of said allotment," &c., from Coke bill, q. v. I 

General WHITTLESEY. Is not that citizenship ? 



90 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Mr. DAWES. I will read what it shall be, when perfected. [Reads.] ''All those 
who take these allotments are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." 
[Applause.] 

Now, if you can devise a broader provision ; if you can suggest a better method, 
those who have charge of this bill will gladly accept the amendment. The bill is by 
no means a perfect one, but it is not much like what it was ; it has been growing bet- 
ter and better, and I hope it will be a good deal better, for having been brought into 
this assembly. If any one can suggest any better way for the allotment of land in 
severally which allows us to keep our honest faith, I wish he would suggest it. I 
have no pride in this matter. It so happens with me that the more I have to do with 
the Indian the greater become the perplexities, and the more distrustful I become 
of myself ; and, therefore, in all sincerity, I beg of those interested, to improve that 
bill if they can. I will say that among the seventy-five other Senators who supported 
this bill were men who had spent a great deal of time upon the frontier among the 
Indians, and who knew their character and temptations. Some of these Senators were 
anything but friendly to this idea of ours, and yet they took up section after section 
of the bill, and they determined that, on the whole, it was the best thing to do, and 
they voted for it. every one of them. It meets their commendation as well as yours 
that the public sentiment which you have stimulated and directed may be turned to 
the benefit of that bill. It would have passed the House if it could have reached a 
vote. If it could have been in the hands of a sincere and earnest Secretary of the 
Interior, the Indian problem would have been HO worked out that we should have 
seen the other side of the question. I am, myself, bound up in the success of some 
measure like that. 

Now, that the Indian can be made something of, I want to tell you what I have 
seen during the last summer. I spent my vacation among the five civilized tribes, as 
they are called. It is within the memory of some of us here that these tribes were 
once wild blanket Indians in Georgia and Alabama ; and the Rev. Mr. Worcester who 
was sent to teach them the Bible was sent to the penitentiary for doing so The 
United States surrendered its power to Georgia, and, because Georgia undertook to 
crush them out, took them and planted them in the Indian Territory ; and when Mr. 
Worcester got out of the penitentiary he followed them there. He had consecrated 
his life to educating these Indians. The United States gave them a patent to that 
land an absolute deed. I have seen the original of it; it is just as perfect as any 
deed you ever held. They were, from that time, absolutely and permanently fixed 
there. By the help of Mr. Worcester, and those who helped him, they have wrought 
out a Government on their own soil without our help. The fundamental idea was that 
they stood upon their own land, audkue wit could not be taken away from them. They 
have a principal chief and a written constitution, and a legislature elected once in 
four years ; it is composed of a senate and house. They have a supreme court, a 
county court, and a school system of which compulsory education is a feature. It 
compels every child within school age to attend school, which is taught in the Eng- 
lish language. They have a high school for girls and one for boys, in buildings that 
would be respectable in Massachusetts. In one of these buildings, close to Mr. Wor- 
cester's grave, I saw one hundred girls taught by Indian teachers, superintended by 
a white woman. I heard Indian girls recite to an Indian teacher in moral philoso- 
phy. I went a few miles away to a high school for boys, one class of which were lay- 
ing out surveys, and it was beyond my comprehension whether they were good or 
bad ; another class was reciting Latin ; some of them are sent, at the expense of the 
Government, into the States for education. I once heard a Senator of the United 
States and not a great while ago, and he was born in Massachusetts and educated 
there I heard him in the Senate of the United States denounce this appropriation for 
Indian schools, declaring that there was not an instance of an Indian who had been 
educated and made to take care of himself. I heard Mr. Garrett, of Princeton, intro- 
duce that Senator to this high school and tell them that he was the silver-tongued 
orator of the United States. He told them of their possibilities and capacities, 
and how to work out their problem. I had a further satisfaction when we called a 
pure-blooded Indian before us, and he discoursed upon what had been done by their 
people. The same Senator asked him: " Where did you get your education ?" "At 
Dartmouth College, sir." The head chief told us that there was not a family in that 
whole nation that had not a home of its own. There was not a pauper in that na- 
tion, and the nation did not owe a dollar. It built its own capitoi, in which we had 
this examination, and it built its schools and its hospitals. Yet the defect of the sys- 
tem was apparent. They have got as far as they can go, because they own their land 
in common. It is Henry George's system, and under that there is no enterprise to 
make your home any better than that of your neighbors. There is no selfishness, 
which is at the bottom of civilization. Till this people will consent to give up their 
lands, and divide them among their citizens so that each can own the land he culti- 
vates, they will not make much more progress. But there is another lesson ; they are 
intensely afraid of the United States. They distrust this Government. They lean away 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 91 

from us, although they are in our inidst. Although they own territory, and have a popu- 
lation capable of becoming a State of this nation, instead of becoming part and lot with 
us, they are leaning away from us. Why ? Those who want to take away the Indian's 
land without his consent can find a lesson in this. When we made our last treaty with 
them we provided that a railroad should run through their territory. When we char- 
tered the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad to run through there, we foolishly put 
into the grant that whenever the Indian title becomes extinct this railrpad shall have 
a strip 20 miles wide. The Indian has been made to believe that the United States is 
after th^at land, and that if they have anything to do with the United States it will get 
that land from them, and so you cannot treat with these Indians. They won't 
have anything to do with you. They prefer to be isolated, because they cannot trust 
us. We have tried to get their land, and there is no possibility of treating with them 
till that delusion is got out of their minds. These five nations will stand off' and be 
isolated under a system that has got its growth. I give this illustration to show 
what a tribe of Indians can do if they are firmly fixed in their homes, and also to 
show how the United States, in order to accomplish this new policy, must have the 
confidence of the Indian growing out of the fact that we don't lie to him. Why does 
the Indian trust General Crook, that most efficient fighter ? Because he always kept 
,his word with the Indian. Who are the men who accomplish the most with the In- 
dians ? The men who they believe mean what they say. When I went to Dakota, 
following after that commission that tried to get the land from them, they told me 
there was a man who wore somebody else's hair on his head (a wig) who had made a 
great many treaties with them. Every time a treaty was made with the Sioux you 
would find his name on it. They said: " He is always after something. When he 
made the treaty of 1878 he promised us so many cows. When he made the treaty of 
the Black Hills he promised us so many cows. But 'nary a cow.'" Now if you ex- 
pect to accomplish anything with an Indian, let him know that you regard your ob- 
ligations just as much as you expect him to observe his ; then you cau work out this 
problem. Take this bill ; you make him believe it is for his interest to set him up 
and give him his patent. With it the tribe is gone, and the tribal de^d is gone, be- 
cause this bill provides the patent shall supersede the other. Whenm man has set 
himself up on his farm, he doesn't want anything to do with a reservation, so that 
your reservation fades out of itself and disappears like the snow in April. When 
you have set the Indian upon his feet, instead of telling him to "root hog or die," 
you take him by the hand and show him how to earn his daily bread. You have got 
him among the fellow-citizens of this body politic ; you have " adniixt " him. [Laugh- 
ter.] In a word, you have put him in away for caring for himself. Now, is not what 
we have accomplished enough to encourage us to put forth all our efforts to continue 
in this work? Why busy ourselves with new'plans when these glorious results have 
attended the work we are doing ? Why not turn our efforts towards iucieasing the 
facilities for educating the Indian ? All that makes him a man is education. Let us 
devise new methods, and let us carry out the glorious idea of General Armstrong of 
bringing families ol young married people to the schools and teaching them how to 
set up housekeeping and be men and women. Let us see that Congress makes pro- 
vision for this, so that when they go back they will find employment and encourage- 
ment, and not be compelled, as many are, not only to seek all this without being able 
to find it, but also to meet the scoffs of the wild blanketed Indians around them. The 
marvel is that one in twenty is able to stand that test instead of only one in a hun- 
dred going back to barbarism. It is the duty of the Government to teach them trades 
and find something for them to do. There are a thousand ways in which to busy our- 
selves in devising new methods, and in pushing on the one great work. When we 
have that, all these difficulties that we have been anticipating in the future will have 
disappeared. I have found more trouble in trying to get over difficulties which were 
away out yonder, and which in point of fact, when I got there, were not there at all, 
than any at my feet. I am not troubling myself to-day as to what I shall do with 
an Indian's reservation who shall not consent to give it up. I have as much as I can 
do to-day. I beg you to do all you can, and hold up the hands of all who are doing 
this work. [ Applause."] 

THE NEED OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The Hon. William H. Lyon, of B/ooklyn, N. Y., one of the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners, was the next speaker. He said : 

" I believe in homes for the Indians, and I was pleased with Judge Strong's remark 
that there is no civilization without homes. The homes of the Indians that I have 
seen are not such as would lead to civilization many of them, at least. In regard 
to education, the great drift of the work has been to educate children up to twenty 
years of age; but I think there are 200,000 Indians over twenty who are entitled to 
some consideration in the way of an education. They are not allowed in the schools 
after they are twenty-five years old. If they are to have homes and lands in sever- 



92 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

alty, the next thing will be to have agricultural instructors. They want homes and 
houses and a little household furniture, and then agricultural implements and agri- 
cultural teachers. Agent Dyer of the Cheyenues says, in his last report, that it 
seems strange to him that $300,000 per year can be secured to purchase beef and flour, 
when twenty-five farmers as industrial teachers, with suitable implements, would 
save tHis large sum. In the last few years we have purchased more than $15,000,000 
worth of beef.. This money could be saved if the Indians were not kept in idleness, 
but were taught agriculture. It has been said here that when they leave Hampton 
and Carlisle they are fitted to care for themselves, but the scholars I have seen are 
not of that kind. If this Coke bill can be passed and homes obtained in severalty, 
the next want will be agricultural teachers. At the Devil's Lake Agency some of the 
teachers will not instruct them unless they connect religious instruction with their 
work. Major McLaughlin attends to the farming, and the Mother Superior of the 

frey nuns of Montreal superintends their studies. This year they have raised 60.000 
ushels of wheat, because they are educated in the line of farming. To show the 
importance of educating Indians to raise their own supplies, I will say that last sea- 
son we purchased 8,000,000 pounds of flour, 900,000 pounds of corn and corn-meal, 
100,000 pounds of barley, and 139,000 pounds of beans. All this they could have raised 
themselves if they had been taught agriculture. I will only say that I hope, if that 
bill passes and the Indians get land in severalty, that some provision will be made 
for agricultural instructors." 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher closed the evening with an address on treaty-keeping, in 
which she emphasized the fact that the idea of " trade" has been at the bottom of 
all our treaties: that such portions of treaties as call for vast expenditures for annui- 
ties, food, and clothing material things, most of which tend to pauperize the Indian 
are carried out to the letter, because the purchase and distribution tend to help the 
genera,! trade of the country, while those portions of the treaties which require the 
education of the Indian are either ignored or only very slightly regarded, so that to- 
day the Government, according to treaty requirements, owes the Indian more than 
$2,000,000 for ^ducational purposes. In response to a question, Miss Fletcher dis- 
claimed any tnrmght of reflection upon the honesty with which supplies are purchased 
for the Indians, merely desiring to call attention to the fact that matters of least ben- 
efit to the Indian received the most attention, because they were of benefit to the 
trade of the country. 

THIRD DAY MORNING SESSION. 

At the opening of the session, before the final report of the business committee, 
addresses were made by Mrs. W. W. Crannell, secretary of the Eastern New York 
Indian Association, and by Mrs. A. S. Quinton, of Philadelphia, secretary of the 
Woman's National Indian Association. 

WOMAN'S WORK FOR THE INDIAN. 

Mrs. QUINTON said : The work of the Woman's National Association began six years 
ago last spring. It originated in a desire to make known the facts as to the Indian's 
needs ; to consolidate the work of the friends of the Indian, and help bring forward 
some lines of work that all could pursue. The first thing was simply to make the 
facts known, and that was done in four different ways: First, by mass meetings; sec- 
ond, through the circulation of leaflets and pamphlets; third, through memorials to 
Government; and fourth, through newspaper work. From the beginning the appeal 
was to Christians, to pastors of churches, and to editors. The thought was that with 
ten millions of Christian people in this country the Indian question could be set- 
tled in a just way and in accordance with Gospel principles, since these were believed 
to be the most practical. A good deal of work was done at first without any organ- 
ization. The first work was the circulating of petitions to Congress to keep the 
treaties. The first petition was circulated in fifteen States and went to the House of 
Representatives that year. That petition had 13,000 signatures. The next year we 
had one that represented 50,000 people. This one was presented in the Senate by 
Senator Dfiwes. The third represented 100,000, and was also presented by Senator 
Dawes in the Senate. It was brought up in the House several days later. The sec- 
ond and third of these petitions were also presented to the President at the White 
House. The organizing of the society began the latter part of the second and the 
first part of the third years. We have auxiliaries in twenty seven States, and there 
are fifty-six auxiliary societies. I suppose no one can be perfectly consistent on the 
Indian question any more than Government can be. The views of the friends of the 
Indian grow the more they know of the question, so the thought of the women has 
changed from year to year ; but there is no change as to the necessity of keeping our 



KEPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 93 

obligations to the Indians, and recognizing them as men and women. Barbarism has 
no claim upon us, but barbarians have, especially when we have acknowledged our 
obligation to protect them in their rights. The present objects of the association are 
to strengthen public sentiment on behalf of Indians and to secure their rights. 

In regard to the missionary work of the association, that is a new departure. The 
work of the society in all its State branches has been done in the ways I have stated. 
During the last year it was resolved to begin missionary work, and this Department 
was taken in because of the appeal of Christian women. As I went about I was every- 
where met with this remark, " If you will undertake missionary work we will be 
with you." So the society agreed to take in this department, but pledged itself not 
to go where there were any missions already located, so as not to tread on the ground 
of others. We gave the simplest forms of Christian instruction, reading the Bible 
and explaining it, then giving domestic teaching, going into the homes of Indian 
women, and also bringing them to the home of the missionary. This is to set them 
coveting Christian homes instead of a tent, and to show them the wisdom of doing 
work in a better way than that to which they had been accustomed. There have 
been three stations made during the last year. First, at Pawnee. Immediately after 
we went there we had application from the Woman's Methodist. Board of the West, 
so the Pawnee station was left for them, as that was in our largest tribe. The Gov- 
ernment had suggested through the Secretary where the work should be begun. The 
Methodist Board has begun a good work, and has an able woman at Pawnee. The 
next stations were at Otoe and at Ponca, Indian Territory ; and negotiations are 
pending for the transference of these stations to Congregational women of Brooklyn, 
and we hope that in a few weeks they will be in charge of them. The next station 
will be among the Sioux of Dakota, and a young lady from Dr Sunderlaud's church 
will go to the new station, and a second missionary with her. Bishop Hare will select 
that station. It must be where the Government will give house-room gratis, and 
we hope the station will be under the eye of Bishop Hare, or under the advice of Mr. 
Thomas Riggs. The Cougregatioualists, Episcopalians, and Presbyterians are doing 
a grand work in Dakota, and we hope that in a year one of their societies will be 
ready to take our station there permanently. The money has been from those largely 
who have not given for missionary work. We need funds. It is. not proper to say a 
word about this, only the treasury is nearly empty. We want to publish leaflets and 
pamphlets, and give information in various ways. We are going now to organize in 
the Southern States. Everything is ready, and with this Democratic administration, 
of course we need a Southern constituency. We do not send to Congress great popu- 
lar petitions now ; we have learned more direct methods of work. 



THE PLATFORM. 



Dr. Rhoads reported from the business committee the following statement, which 
he said received the cordial approval of every member of the committee : 

The Indian question can never be settled except on principles of justice and equal 
rights. In its settlement all property rights of the Indians should be sacredly guarded, 
and all obligations should be faithfully fulfilled. Keeping this steadily in view, the 
object of all legislative and executive action hereafter should be not the isolation of 
the Indians, but the abrogation of the Indian reservations as rapidly as possible, the 
permitted diffusion of the Indians among the people in order that they may become 
acquainted with civilized habits and modes of life; the ultimate discontinuance of 
annuities, so prornotive of idleness and pauperism ; the subjection of the Indians to 
the laws of the United States and of the States and Territories where they may reside, 
and their protection by the same laws as those by which citizens are protected ; the 
opening of all tlfe territory of the United States to their possible acquisition and to 
civilization, and the early admission of Indians to American citizenship. These ob- 
jects should be steadily kept i n view, aud pursued i mmediately, vigorously , and continu- 
ously. The measures we recommend for their accomplishment are the following : 

(1) The present system of Indian education should be enlarged, and a comprehen- 
sive plan should be adopted, which shall place all Indian children in schools under 
compulsion if necessary, and shall provide industrial education fora large proportion 
of them. Adult Indians should be brought under preparation for self-support. To 
this end the free ration system should be discontinued as rapidly as possible, and a 
sufficient number of farmers aud other' industrial teachers should be provided mean- 
time to teach them to earn their own living. 

(2) Immediate measures should be taken to break up the system of holding all lands 
in common, aud each Indian family should receive a patent for a portion of land to be 
held in severalty, its amount dependent upon the number of members of the family 
and the character of the land, whether adapted for cultivation or for grazing. This 
land should be inalienable for a period of twenty-five years. The Coke bill, as em- 
bodying this principle, has our earnest support, and is urged upon all rriends of the 
Indians as the one practicable measure for securing these ends. 



94 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIA*N COMMISSIONERS. 

(3) All portions of the Indian reservations which are not so allotted should, after 
the Indians have selected and secured their lands, be purchased by the Government 
at a fair rate, and be thrown open to settlement. 

(4) The cash value of the lands thus purchased should be set aside by the Govern- 
ment as a fund to be expended as rapidly as can be wisely done for their benefit, espe- 
cially their industrial and educational advancement. 

(5) In order to carry out the preceding recommendations legal provision should be 
made for the necessary surveys of reservations, and, wherever necessary, negotiations 
should be entered into for the modification of the present treaties, and these negotia- 
tions should be pressed in every honorable way until the consent of the Indians be 
obtained. 

(6) Indians belonging to tribes which give up their reservations and accept allot- 
ments of land in severalty, and all Indians that abandon their tribal organization and 
adopt the habits and modes of civilized life, should be at once admitted to citizenship 
of the United States, become subject to and entitled to the protection of the laws of 
the United States and of the States or Territories where they may reside. 

(7) During this process of civilization some representative of the United States Gov- 
ernment should be charged with the protection and instruction of the Indians. But 
all such officers should be withdrawn as soon as the Indians are capable of self-support 
and self-protection. 

(8) We are unalterably opposed to the removal of tribes of Indians from their estab- 
lished homes, and massing them together in one or more Territories, as injurious to 
the Indian and an impediment to civilization. 

(9) We thankfully recognize the growing interest taken by the legislative and ex- 
ecutive departments of our country in the welfare of the Indians, and the increased 
desire manifest among our people West and East to do them justice. And our thanks 
are also due to the religious and philanthropic organizations which have fostered this 
interest, and have supplemented the work of the Government by their missionary and 
educational labors. But we believe that what has been done in the past is but a be- 
ginning, and that both Government and individuals must do much more before the 
debt we owe to the Indians can be paid. 

DR. LYMAN ABBOTT'S REMARKS. 

Dr. LYMAN ABBOTT. I shall try to keep myself within the fifteen minutes, and as 
the time is so short I am sure the conference will excuse me if I take no time for per- 
sonal references or compliments, nor even for what, in a public address, might be more 
necessary, of qualification and limitation, but put as sharply as I can the ideas I 
have upon this subject. 

In the first place, Mr. Chairman and ladies and gentlemen, there are one or two 
things we may take for granted. We may take it for granted that we are not here to 
criticise legislation, certainly not those who have been laboring in the earlier periods 
of this movement against bitter hostility, sometimes open, and avowed, and sometimes 
harder to meet secret. We think it an honor that we are permitted to be enrolled 
with them, and we recognize gratefully the services they have rendered, are render- 
ing, and have yet to render. In what I shall say this morning I hope I shall not be 
understood as criticising the Coke bill. So far as I understand it, it has my hearty 
and warm approval. I shall be glad to vote with the conference an expression of that 
approval. 

In the second place, it may be taken for granted that we are Christian men and 
women ; that we believe in justice, good- will, and charity, and the brotherhood of 
the human race. At least none of us here desire to break the Ten Commandments, 
nor break down honor and rectitude. I think it may be taken for gfanted that all of 
us here are, I will not say friends of the Indian, but friends of humanity, and friends 
of equal rights ; that there is no person invited here, and no one who has come, who 
desires for one moment, having sworn to his own hurt, to change or alter or break a 
contract or a treaty that he may be benefited by the breaking of it. But if we have* 
made a bad contract it is better broken than kept. I do not propose to argue the 
question of treaty at any length, but it is proper to state the position I hold, with 
some others, on this subject. 

It is not right to do a wrong thing, and if you have agreed to do a wrong thing 
that agreement does not make it right. If we have made contracts the result of which 
as shown by later experience, is inhumanity and degradation, we are not bound to go 
on with them, we are bound to stop. A few years ago the United States Government 
was giving scalping-knives to the Indians. No matter on what parchment the treaty 
was made, we were bound to stop the issue of the scalping-knives. If we had agreed 
with some tribe in ancient time that we would set up no school-house or church with 
ihem we should have no right to go on with that treaty. If we have bound a mill- 
stone about the neck of the Indian, the first step of justice is to cut the cord and set 



REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 95 

him free. We have no right to keep a drunken Indian in darkness because we have 
agreed to do so till he has learned the evil effects of whisky. The people of these 
United States made a sacred compact with one another, the Constitution of the United 
States, and we were told by the highest judicial and constitutional authorities that 
that Constitution required us to catch and return the fugitive slave. There were 
some who believed in a higher law, and I was one of them, under which no contract 
could be executed that made it our duty to become bloodhounds to pursue a fleeing 
man. We have no right to do a wrong because we have covenanted to. With these 
brief words on the subject of treaty making, I pass to the larger question, because our 
obligations to the Indian are not primarily rooted in contract or treaty. Our pri- 
mary obligations to the Indian are of a much more fundamental character the duties 
that the strong owe to the weak ; that the Government owes to those under it ; that 
roan owes to his fellow man. We have no contract with the negro ; but we owe duties 
to him. We have no contract with the Chinaman ; but I think we owe him some- 
thing. We have no contract with the .Italian, the Hungarian, and others; yet we 
owe them duties. It is of these larger duties we owe that I speak this morning. 

When our fathers landed on these shores there was no alternative but to make 
treaties with the Indians ; it was necessary. We have now passed beyond the epoch 
in which it is right or necessary to make treaties, and have so officially declared. 
We can no longer be bound by our forefathers ; we must adapt our policy to the change 
of circumstances. It is sometimes said that the Indians occupied this country and 
that we took it away from them ; that the country belonged to them. This is not 
true. The Indians did not occupy this land. A people do not occupy a country sim- 
ply because they roam over it. They did not occupy the coal mines, nor the gold 
mines, into which they never struck a pick ; nor the rivers which flow to the sea, and 
on which the music of a mill was never heard. The Indians can scarcely be said to 
have occupied this country more than the bisons and the buffalo they hunted. Three 
hundred thousand people have no right to hold a continent and keep at bay a race 
able to people it and provide the happy homes of civilization. We do owe the In- 
dians sacred rights and obligations, but one of those duties is not right to let them 
hold forever the land they did not occupy, and which they were not making fruitful 
for themselves or others. 

The reservation system has grown up. It is not necessary to go into the process by 
which it has grown. It is enough to say that a territory in this country about twice 
as large as the entire territory of England, Ireland, and Scotland, has been set apart 
to barbarism by the reservation system. The railroad goes to the edge of it and halts. 
The post-office goes to the edge of it and halts. There are mines there unopened; 
great wealth untouched by those who dwell there. The reservation system runs a 
fence about a great territory and says to civilization, " Keep off ! " It was a great com- 
plaint against William the Conqueror that he preserved grea b forests in the heart of his 
country for his hunting ground. We have no right to preserve a territory twice as large 
as Great Britain for a hunting ground for anyone. If this reservation syt- tern was only 
doing a positive injury to us, then we might endure it. But it holds back civilization and 
isolates the Indian, and denies him any right which justice demands for him. What are 
you and I entitled to ask for, living under these stars and stripes ? Protection for oar 
homes ; protection to go where we wish ; a right to buy in the cheapest market ; a right 
to education ; the right to appeal to the protection of law ; protection for ourselves and 
children. There is not one of these rights that the reservation system does not put its 
foot upon. Even under the modified system, modified by recent reforms, the United 
States says to the Indian, " You cannot have a home till half or two-thirds of your 
tribe will agree." Last night the New York Times said that the cowboys were watch- 
ing along the borders of a distant reservation, waiting to shoot the first Indian that 
should appear; and unless rumor does the cowboy injustice, his bullet might fly 
across and hit an Indian before leaving his border. The Indian may not carry his 
goods across the reservation. We deny him an open market. Every right to which 
we hold ourselves entitled by the God of Heaven, we deny the Indian under this sys- 
tem, and expect to compensate him by putting in here a church and there a school- 
house. But Christianity is not merely a thing of churches and school-houses. The 
post-office is a Christianizing institution ; the railroad, with all its corruptions, is a 
Christianizing power, and will do more to teach the people punctuality than school- 
master or preacher can. I hope you will not think I speak in disrespect of church and 
school-house. They that are maintaining the church and school-house in those dis- 
tant reservations are the very ones, without exception, that urge us to break down 
the barriers and let in the fall flood tide of Christian civilization. Theirs is the ap- 
peal, theirs the urgency. We take a few Indians and bring them to Carlisle and 
Hampton. Captain Pratt at Carlisle and General Armstrong at Hampton have done 
more for the Indian race thank God for them than any man can do with a glib tongue 
or a quick pen. But General Armstrong has told us this year how this reservation 
system stands against his work, and Captain Pratt tells us the same. You educate 
an Indian boy and send him back to the Indian Territory. He must not find a wife 



96 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

here, because that would be intermingling with the American population. He looks 
for a wife there, and they look with as natural disgust upon a beaver hat as he would 
upon a squaw's blanket. These men, whether in the Territory or out of it, are row- 
ing their boat against the whole tide of our national life and begging us to make it 
flow the other way. 

I declare my conviction, then, that the reservation system is hopelessly wrong ; 
that it cannot be amended or modified; that it can only be uprooted, root, trunk, 
branch, and leaf, and a new system put in its place. We evangelical ministers be- 
lieve in immediate repentance. 1 hold to immediate repentance as a national duty. 
Cease to do evil, cease instantly, abru 'tly, immediately. I hold that the reservation 
barriers should be cast down and the 4and given to the Indians in severally ; that 
every Indian should be protected in his right to his home, and in his right to free in- 
tercourse and free trade, whether the rest of the tribe wish him so protected or not ; 
that these are his individual, personal rights, which no tribe has the right to take 
from him, and no nation the right to sanction the robbery of. Do you ask "What 
would you do to-morrow morning?" We are told that upon the Pacific coast is a 
tribe of Indians to which patents have, been issued, and that these patents are in 
pigeon-holes in Washington. I would take them out to morrow and send them to 
the Indians as fast as the railroad trains can carry them, and I would follow this work 
np all along the line. I would begin at once a process for the survey and allotment 
of laud to individuals in severally. I would take the Indian and give him the rights 
of manhood with this great American people ; and if there are any tribes so wild and 
barbaric that this cannot be done with them, I would put them under close surveil- 
lance, and would bring them under a compulsory educative process. 

One word more. It is said that this is not safe; that we must protect the Indian. 
There are two methods for the protection of the Indian. They were proposed some 
fifteen or twenty years ago for the protection of the negro. A portion of the commu- 
nity believed the wisest thing to do was to place the negroes together in one State, 
separating them from the rest of the people and massing them on a great reservation, 
and, if it did not cost too much, perhaps sending them to Liberia. This was to protect 
them from the wrongs their neighbors might do them. But the American people 
said "No! we will make these men free, we will give them the ballot, and they must 
protect themselves." We said to the negro just what General Whittlesey said he 
would do with the Indian; and what St. Paul said eighteen centuries ago I would 
say still, "If a man will not work, neither shall he eat." In the case of the negro, 
though there were wrongs perpetrated, yet as the final result, the negro and the 
white man are adjusting their relations and coming into harmony. I believe it safer 
to leave the Indian to the protection of the law than to the protection of the agency. 
For my part I would rather run my risk with the laws of the land, and with the 
courts open to me, than with the agent who may be a philanthropist, or who may be 
a politician. We have made progress, we are making progress, but I am sometimes a 
little impatient, the progress is so slow. I feel a little as Horace Mann did when he 
came in after attending a convention, full of nervous impetuosity and wrathful at the 
slowness of the reform. Someone said to him "God is patient." "Yes," he said, 
"God is patient, but I cannot wait." 

Mr. JOHN H. OBERLY, superintendent of Indian schools, Department of the In- 
terior, Washington. With your president here [indicating General Fisk] I made a 
treaty, and he has broken it. 

The CHAIRMAN. I fall back on Dr. Abbott; I agreed to a wrong thing, and the 
time to repent is now. 

Mr. OBERLY. But I, the unfortunate victim of the broken contract, must neverthe- 
less suffer. 

The fact is [addressing the conference], your chairman made an agreement with 
me, by the terms of which I, who have none of the skill of a public speaker, was to 
have been exempted from the (by him) asserted necessity of making a speech to you. 
He assured me that he, and you, too, would be satisfied if I would answer in your 
hearing questions that would be asked me relating to Indian schools and to my office. 
But here I am before you and there is no questioner at work. So what else can I do 
under the circumstances than satisfy myself with a protest against the wrong which 
has been inflicted upon me, and obtain for this wrong an ample revenge by using my 
uncultivated faculty of speech in inflicting upon you a loose, disjointed, not-at-all- 
consiclered address upon a subject to which I have not yet given the study necessary 
to a proper comprehension of its scope and bearings. 

What the wise Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. Dawes] said last night in his in- 
teresting address attracted my attention, and what good Dr. Abbott has just said in 
your heaiing has also been. attentively listened to by me. These two good men are 
approaching the same point from opposite directions. The Senator would confer the 
benefits of civilization upon the Indians by waiting until proper occasion is ripe, and 
the good work may be done without breaking the nation's word; and the doctor 
would do the good work suggested by not waiting, by compelling the Indians to ac- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 97 

cept our civilization without delay, and by breaking the nation's word with them. 
But both the wise Senator and the good doctor have arrived at this common stand- 
point, that the first essential thing in the attempt to solve the Indian problem is agree- 
ment that the Indian is a man and that he should have individualism. Therefore, 
both the wise Senator and the good doctor agree together in the sensible conclusion 
that, as soon as possible, the paternalism of the Government should be removed from 
the Indians, who should no longer be considered in our legislation as communities to 
be nursed and fondled by kind, or to be cursed and whipped by cruel, paternalism, but, 
as individuals, as men, each man having the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness, and every individual being under the provisions of the inexorable law 
which rests upon every human creature, that he must, before he can attain to the full 
stature of manhood, \vork out for himself and in his own way his own destiny. [Ap- 
plause.] This can never be done under any system of kind or cruel, fondling or 
punishing, paternalism. 

While riding with a very pleasant company .yesterday afternoon, along one of the 
roads leading to what is known as " The Eagle's Cliff," the scenery within my view 
recalled to my recollection a mythological story that teaches impressively the impor- 
tance of individualism in the affairs of the world. To this story, for the purpose of 
pointing a moral, I may, not inaptly, refer in the hearing of so many gentlemen who 
preside over institutions of learning and are scholars, I presume. If recollection does 
not deal treacherously with me, to this effect the story runs: The Sphinx, a monster, 
once infested the road near Thebes. At one place in the road, running along the edge of 
a precipice as deep and steep as the one we look at when we look across the lake from 
'"The Eagle's Cliff," this monster crouched, and to every traveler proposed an enigma, 
with the condition that the one who could solve it might pass in safety, but all who 
failed should be devoured. Every person who entered into or departed from Thebes had 
to pass along this road, and was asked the riddle. No one had solved it. Thousands 
had failed and had perished. One day CEdipus passed that way and was arrested by 
the Sphinx, who said " Solve my riddle or die. What being walks in the morning on 
four feet, at noon on two, and in the evening on three ; has one voice, and when with 
themostfeet isweakest?" CEdipus answered: " That being is man, who in childhood 
crawls on hands and knees, in manhood walks erect, and in old age walks with a staff." 
The Sphinx, mortified at the solution of her riddle, cast herself down the abyss with- 
out using her wings, and perished, and ever afterwards the way was clear for those 
who wished to enter into or depart from Thebes. 

This story teaches the lesson of political individualism, and may be used to give 
point to the doctrine that paternalism in government is an iniquity, and that all po- 
litical progress has its foundation in the individual. There are many Sphinx riddles 
in politics, and ;he answer to every one is the answer of CEdipus, "man." At stated 
periods in the history of every nation, a political Sphinx has seated herself at a nar- 
row place on the road to national prosperity and has said " Solve my riddle or die. 
What being walks on four feet in the morning, on two at noon, and on three at night." 
To this question some of the nations have replied,by saying " the king ; " others, " the 
nobles;" others, " wealth; " others, " the sword." The bleaching bones of most of 
the nations that have replied thus are scattered all along the highroad of the world's 
history. The first time in the history of the human race America gave to the Sphinx 
riddle of statesmanship the answer of (Edipus. "We, the people," was the reply the 
Americans made to the king, by which answer every man who was devoted to the 
cause of independence said, " I, the individual, agreeing with my fellow citizens in this 
conclusion ; I, the individual, having an inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pur- 
suit of happiness, unite with other individuals in saying that the answer to the here- 
tofore unanswered riddle of statemanship is Man, for whom all governments should 
becreated, because from the individual all legitimate political power primarily flows." 
[Applause.] 

This answer was put into the mouths of the American people by Jefferson, who 
founded the political party of which I am a member, and its application to affairs of 
state resulted in the assertion of the new political thought, nev^r dreamed of as possible 
before the days of Jefferson, that charters of power should be granted, not by power, 
but by liberty. Before the ofawn of American liberty, from time immemorial, char' 
ters of liberty had -been granted by power. The king and the victorious soldier 
fresh from won battle-fields, had graciously conferred liberty by saying to the people', 
" You may." At Runnymede the bold barons said to King John, " You must permit 
us to enjoy life and liberty," Consulting his fears, the King replied, "You may." 
Thus liberty came either by the favor or fear of the ruler. Liberty flowed down to 
the people from power. But when America said to the world, " The answer to the 
great political riddle of the ages is, 'Manhood, because all legitimate political power 
comes primarily from the individual,'" a new truth was asserted, and our ancestors set 
the example of charters of power granted, and limitations of power imposed, by liberty. 
They revised the old rule, and said to their ruler, " You may," ".You must," and " You 
shall not." They gave vitality to the doctrine that the individual citizen had the 
H. Ex. 109 7 



98 REPORT OF THE BOARD. OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

right to say, " I consent," or " I object ;" to say to the Government, " You may," " You 
must," and "You shall not." And now, therefore, in this day of grace, and under our 
benign political systtm, liberty no longer flows down to the people from power, but 
power flows up from the people to the political officer, who holds his office in trust 
for the public. The ruler the Government no longer says to the people, " You raay,' r 
"You must," and " You shall not," but the people now say to the Government, "You 
may." "You must," and " You shall not." We have given vitality to the politica 
doctrine of individualism. 

But in our treatment of the Indian we inconsistently apply the old doctrine that 
governments should not have their foundations laid in the consent of the governed. 
As in the olden time, we say to the Indians, "You may," "You must," and "You shall 
not ;" and, refusing to recognize individualism among them, we herd them in to tribes- 
upon reservations, within the limits of which neither law nor liberty has an abiding- 
place ; property rights are unknown ; sloth wastes the sluggish body because hands 
refuse to labor ; vices, collected through many ages, are fed by idleness ; conscience, 
not being regularly tilled, produces nothing but the coarse grasses and thorns of vir- 
tue ; men finish within each day the whole purpose of their existence. While we hold 
to this policy in Indian affairs, we can never solve the Indian riddle. It must be an- 
swered as the Sphinx's was, by a recognition of the manhood of the Indian. Any other 
answer will result in the failure of the Government to accomplish any good. There- 
fore, the problem m>\\ is, how to make fit the Indian, ballot in hand, to say to the 
Government, "You shall no longer say to me, 'Yon may,' 'You must,' 'You shall not;'' 
for now, by the magic power of this little piece of paper, I say to you, 'You rnayj' 
' You must ,' 'You shall not.'" How can this be done ? How can the'lndiau be fitted 
for citizenship and enfranchisement? This is the problem we have to solve. 

I understand Dr. Abbott to say that the Indian can be made fit for citizenship and 
enfranchisement by the immediate destruction of the reservation, by giving to each 
Indian laud in severalty, and by compelling every Indian to work, under the penalty 
spoken of by St. Paul, and referred to here yesterday by General W T hittlesey, "That 
if any would not work, neither should he eat." 

The good doctor would pay no attention to the stipulations of our treaties with the 
Indian^. He would abolish the reservations now, treaties or no treaties. But would 
this be wise ? The doctor says the cowboy, having been driven from a reservation, 
stands with ready gun outside this reservation, determined to kill all Indians who 
leave it. If the/ doctors suggestion were acted upon, and the reservation system 
were immediately abolished, the cowboy would not long stand outside the imaginary . 
line that now marks the limits of the reservation. He would go across it, and soon 
there would be no Indians living to protest against robbery and violence. To wipe 
out the reservation lines now, and leave the Indian unprotected from the rapacity 
of the white man, would be an unpardonable crime. 

Another question, now. Shall we, as the doctor proposes, compel the Indian to take 
lands in severalty ? The Indian is ignorant and debased ; he has not been educated 
to know what property in land is; he does not know how to own land ; he does not 
know how to use land. Would it then be wise to compel him to enter into the posses- 
sion of lauds allotted to him ? I cannot believe that it would be. 

With Dr. Abbott, and with your declaration of principles, I agree, that the Indian 
should be admitted to American citizenship ; that the reservation system should be 
destroyed; that lane's should be allotted to the Indians in severalty, and that the 
Indian should be compelled to work; but I would reverse the order of and in some 
slight manner change this declaration. I would first teach the Indian how to work; 
then I would teach him our ideas of the rights of property, and give him lands in sev- 
eralty ; then I would abolish the reservation system, and then make the Indian a 
citizen and enfranchise him. I would prepare him for the unharrnful exercise of the 
rights of a property-holder, a citizen, and a voter. How can this be done ? You have 
said by enlarging the present system of Indian education. This brings me to the 
question ? What is the present system of Indian education ? 

Replying to this quotation, I am compelled to say that this system, if, indeed, system 
it may be called, is a very defective one; and, contemplating it with curious interest 
I am forced to the conclusion that it is what may be called a Topsy system. Topsy, 
you know (if Topsy may be accepted as good authority), never had a father, never 
had a mother, never was born ; she "just growed." [Laughter.] So it may be said 
of the present Indian school system ; it never had a father; it never had a mother; 
it never was born; it "just growed." 

Under this system, we find Government and mission day-schools on the reservations ; 
Government and mission boarding schools<m the reservations; Government and mis- 
ion training- schools; colleges and schools in the States and Territories, at which the 
Government has placed Indian children, under contracts made with such schools and 
colleges. 

Need 1 tell you how the teachers and other employe's of the Government schools are 
procured ? In theory they are all appointed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 99 

excepting the superintendents of the industrial schools, who are appointed by the 
Secretary of the Interior ; but, in fact, all the employe's of the day-schools and reser- 
vation boarding-schools are appointed by the Indian agents. And who are they? 
They are men who give large bonds to the Government and draw small salaries for 
the performance of important duties. Drawing, as his own salary, $>1,01'0 or $1,500, 
or, at most, f>4,v!00 per annum, the Indian agent must, as a matter of course, bring 
from other sources as great a salary-income into his family as possible, and, therefore, 
his wife, and sons, and daughters, are often appointed as employes of the schools. 
The appointment of his wife as matron, if she is co petent to fill the place with ability, 
is desirable; and, without injury to the' interests of the school, his daughter, if she is 
qualified, may be appointed ' teacher ; but as the agent is. in fact, the judge of the 
qualifications of all the school employe's, self-interest often induces him to overlook 
the importance of not appointing members of his own family who lack the qualifica- 
tions the interests of the schools require. .He must also look after the friends and 
"the sisters, and the cousins, and the aunts" of his boudsmen, who are, as a general 
rule, members of his own political party ; and too often the Congressman whose in- 
fluence procured the agent his place will say to him, "I have done you a good turn 
in this matter, and now you must give Jones, who has for a long time taken care of 
one of my most troublesome wards, a good place under you ;" and so Jones, skillful as 
a wire-puller, but ignorant of books, is appointed to a place in a school, perhaps. 
Too many inefficient and unworthy men and women are in this way appointed to 
places 111 the Indian schools. 

Now, how can this evil be corrected? How can we obtain school employes in de- 
spite of the school-marring influences of partisan politics and personal interests? 
Luckily we are living under a civil service reform administration, and we may, there- 
fore, hope that the hand of the politician will be taken from the Indian school sys- 
tem. The hand of the Republican partisan will surely be taken from it, at least 
temporarily; no doubt of tnat. [Laughter. J As I look around me here I feel lone- 
some ; you are nearly all Republicans. 

The CHAIRMAN. Why, look at that man [pointing at Hon. Erastus Brooks], and 
.that, and that. 

Mr. OBERLY. NOW that we are in [addressing the persons indicated by the chair- 
man], we find nothing but Republican employes in the schools, and what are we go- 
ing to do about it? Shall we turn them all out and put Democrats in? Whenever a 
Republican Indian agent retires from office at the expiration of his term, or is retired 
because he has been an offensive partisan or an incompetent or unfaithful officer, or a 
dishonest man, a Democrat is, as a matter of course, put into his place. This Demo- 
crat does not receive a higher salary than his Republican predecessor received, or 
give a smaller bond than the Republican gave, and we may admit, I venture to say, 
that he will be solicited by a not less hungry lot of office-seekers; indeed it would be 
strange if this set of office-seekers were not hungrier than that set, because you know 
we Democrats have not had anything to eat for twenty-four years. [Laughter.] 
What what will the Democratic Indian agent do about it ? I do not know. 

But this I do know, that every Indian agent will be hereafter required to send to 
the Indian office, with his nomination of any school employe" with his nomination 
of a superintendent, or matron, or teacher, or industrial teacher farmer, or black- 
smith, or carpenter, or seamstress, or laundress, or cook evidences that the person 
nominated is qualified to fill with ability the position named, and is industrious, 
zealous, and of good reputation. And the agent will also be required to givn his rea- 
sons tor making any removal of a school employe" to give his reasons in full ; and if 
these reasons do not show that the removal has been made for good cause, the removal 
will not be approved. In this way, it is to be hoped, the removal of worthy and the 
appointment of unworthy employes may be prevented. So far, every superintendent 
of an industrial school, appointed since the 4th of last March, has been instructed to 
make no removals of employe's simply on account of political affiliations, but to make 
as many removals as possible on account of inefficiency and unworthiness. 

By another method we will attempt to give more efficient employe's to and add to 
the usefulness of some of the more important schools. Whenever a boarding-school 
on a reservation is distant from the agency, and cannot, therefore, receive the daily 
attention of the agent, the authority of the Secretary of the Interior will be requested 
to separate that school from the agency, and put it under a bonded superintendent, 
who will be appointed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, be required to furnish 
evidence that he is a competent educator and a business man, and he will be paid 
what is not paid to any superintendent of any reservation boarding-school now a 
good salary for the faithful and skillful performance of his duty. 

Ladies and gentlemen, partisan politics have heretofore controlled every Indian 
agency, and packed the Indian schools with the protege's of politicians, in this way 
crippling the schools, and robbing them of much of their efficiency. You must, there- 
fore, permit me to say that you should thank the Lord that the Democratic party 
has come into power, and is determined to make merit and competency, .nstead o:' 



100 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

partisan considerations, paramount tests, and apply them to every applicant for a 
position in the Indian school service. To be entirely frank with yon, I will say that 
if a vacancy existed in any school, and there were two candidates for the place, one 
a Democrat and the other a Republican, and they were of equal ability and merit, no 
agent or superintendent would be called into question if he were to prefer a Demo- 
crat, but he would be applauded every time he preferred a worthy and competent Re- 
publican to an unworthy and incompetent Democrat. 

Now, having determined upon a plan by which we may obtain competent, and 
worthy employe's, how are we to obtain pupils for the schools I 

The Indians reluctantly send their children to school. They are in no hurry to ac- 
cept the great boon of free education, which the Government is now so kindly and 
wisely offering to them. They are unlike Dr. Abbott ; they can wait. Many of them 
absolutely refuse to permit their sous and daughters to enter a school-room, and say : 
<( Education is for the white man, not for the Indian. Our children must grow up 
to be Indians with Indian ways, and the school would make them whitemen with the 
white man's ways." Scrutinies the agent, by direction of the Indian Office, says to 
the Indian protestant against/the schools : "" I will not pay you your annuity until 
your children have been sent to the school." Then the children appear in the school, 
the annuities are paid, and the children at once disappear from the school. What 
can be done to overcome this difficulty ? A good many of our treaties with the In- 
dians provide that the Government shall build school-houses, and furnish to the con- 
tracting tribes educational facilities, the Indians, on their part, agreeing that rations 
and annuities shall be withheld if children are not supplied to the schools by their 
parents. I think I may promise that Secretary Lamar and Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs Atkins, who have ihis matter much at heart, will give the necessary authority 
for enforcing these provisions of Indian treaties. Even an Indian would rather have 
his children educated than starve or suffer for want of food. But all that can be done 
in this way under the treaties will not be successful in compelling many a great 
majority of the Indian children of school age to attend the schools. This can be done 
only bj a rigid law requiring the attendance of Indian children at the schools unrer 
certain penalties to be inflicted upon the refusing parents. Compulsory education 
must be resorted to. The Indians are the wards of the nation, and they must, until 
they are emancipated from this evil paternal system, be compelled to be good to them- 
selves, if such compulsion can be resorted to without doing violence to any of their 
treaty rights. I believe that a law requiring every reservation Indian in the United 
States to send his children to school, and punishing him for refusing or neglecting to 
do so, would not contravene the provisions of any treaty. I believe Congress ought 
to pass a stringent law of this kind. I am sure that, under the provisions of such a 
law, we could get the Indian children out. of the camps into the schools, a consum- 
mation devoutly to be wished. 

Having determined upon a plan by which competent teachers may be obtained, and 
the Indian children compelled to attend the schools provided for them, what shall be 
taught by the teachers to the pupils, and what methods of instruction shall be 
adopted ? 

To teach an Indian pupil to "read, write, and cipher'' is not sufficient. He must 
be taught many things that need not be taught to a white pupil. He must be taught 
to unlearn many things that he has learned ; to di>card prejudices that were impressed 
upon his mind in his infancy ; to rise superior to the conditions under which he lived 
in the Indian camp and to which he must return ; to abandon the religion of his 
fathers, and accept a new faith ; to cast off the social conditions of his own people and 
receive those of another people. He is a prickly thorn that must be made to bear 
soft roses; he is a twig bent out of the perpendicular, and he must be straightened so 
that the tree will stand erecr, inclining no way ; he is a vessel of bronze that must be 
made bright by constant rubbing. To be a teacher of these things to a pupil of this 
kind requires that patience which makes the heaviest burdens light. In addition to 
lessons in morals, in religion, in literature, in history, the Indian pupil should be 
taught politics in the higher sense of that, word. He should be instructed in our 
theory of government, and in our ideas of property and business. He should be taught 
that he may own lands and sell them or transmit his rights in them to his children. 
He should also be taught how to work. He should be taught how to cultivate the 
soil after he has been taught how to own it, and how to manage Hocks and herds. 
The agency farm is an abomination, but the Indian school farm and cattle range may 
be made blessings that will y;ive to the tribes fanners and herdsmen. The Indian boy 
pupil -should also be taught all the trades that the farmer and the herdsman patronize. 
He should be taught how to build houses: how to n:ake wagons, harness, and saddles; 
how to shoe horses: how to make clothing and boots and shoes. And the girl pupil 
should be instructed in household ways should be taught how to cook; ho\\ to wash 
and iron clothing ; how to handle the needle: how to nurse the sick ; how to be a 
good wife and a good mother. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 101 

Aud now as to methods of instruction. Each, school is a law unto itself in regard 
to. methods. This lamentable fact will become forcibly apparent to your minds, when 
I tell you that the Indian agent not only selects the employe's of what may be not 
improperly called his schools, but, also determines the text-books that shall be usecl 
by what may be not inappropriately designated as his pupils. As a result of this 
looseness in our so-called school system, all the school text-books that are published 
in the United States are being used in the Indian schools. But am I correct m attrib- 
uting this at least apparent liberality towards school-book publishers to the looseness- 
of the school system? May it not have resulted from a desire to obtain the favor of 
these men in politics? To induce them to help with purse and influence the political 
party to which I do not belong the political party that was lately put out of power 
in theory, but which is not yet altogether out in fact? .But, be that as it may, the 
list of school-books sent by the Indian Bureau to the Indian agents, from which to 
choose books for their schools, is a quarter of a mile long "more or less," as the 
lawyers say; and none of the books on the list none of the books used in the Indian 
schools can be used to advantage, because Indian children cannot be properly in- 
structed in the same way out of the same books and by the same methods that 
white children are instructed. 

Well, what are we going to do about this? How can this looseness of system be 
corrected ? How can these defective methods be replaced by better ones? 

I have already indicated some of the screws I would use in making the system 
firmer. I have done this by calling your attention to the necessity of establishing 
tests of qualification for employment in schools that will render impossible the ap- 
pointment of incompetent employe's for party purposes or personal reasons, and by 
pointing out to you the paramount necessity of divorcing the school -system from 
agency control. 

Very well, but how can the defective school methods now in use be replaced by 
better ones? Before you cook your hare you catch it. Before you can use better 
methods you must procure them. And this is what must be done better methods of 
Indian school instruction must be determined upon ; but how ? I have said that every 
Indian school is now a law unto itself; and it is als-> a fact that every Indian agent 
who gives to the subject of schools any thought at all, and every superintendent and; 
every teacher of every school has his or her own opinion about methods of instruction, 
and acts upon those opinions. Out of this independence of thought and action among 
the persons who manage the schools no uniform instruction can come; but if the per- 
sons who have had the most experience in Indian school affairs could be called into 
convention occasionally, so that they might discuss with one another the Indian school 
system and Indian school methods, I have little doubt that soon the system would be 
improved and better methods devised. 

Therefore I have suggested that an annual conference of the superintendents of 
Indian schools should be held. This suggestion has been approved by the Secretary 
of the Interior and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who will ask Congress to ap- 
propriate $1,500 to defray the expenses of such a conference, to be held next year. 
To this conference, which will be composed of Armstrong, of the Hampton school; 
Pratr, of Carlisle; Grabowski, of the Haskell Institute; Branham, of Chilocco; Lee, 
of Salem ; Chase, of Genoa ; and other superintendents of other important Indian 
schools, I shall submit the proposition that a series of uniform Indian school text- 
books should be prepared by the Government and printed at the Government Print- 
ing Office. In this way the schools may be supplied with books that will be exactly 
adapted to the purpose for which they are intended, and in this way the Indian child 
will be given a primer it can comprehend, and the more advanced pupil a reader con- 
taining matter that will both in truct and entertain, and a history of the United 
State* that will not on one page represent the Indian as a monster, and on the next 
page represent him as a hero of romance. 

By these annual conferences, and by Indian school teacher's institutes, and by other 
means, we may wisely determine what should be taught in the schools and the best 
methods of instruction. 

And now comes the most important question of all. Afrer the Indian boys of the 
schools have been educated under the best system and by the best methods we can 
devise, what are we going to do with them? The Indian boys who return to the 
camps from Hampton and Carlisle do not exercise the good influence they should ex- 
ercise among their people. Most of them sink into obscurity ; and I am not putting 
it too strongly when I say that a majority of them go back to the blanket and the 
lazy and corrupting habits of the Indian camp. Why do they do this? Because re- 
turning to the camp, they find no work at which they may profitably employ their 
hands; and at the game time all the influences of fami'ly and race become active in 
the work of dragging them back to Indian life and Indian ways. 

" Returning to the reservation the graduate of the Indian school goes back to In- 
dian ways," say all the objectors to the Indian school system ; and they add, " because 
the Indian cannot accept our civilization." I admit the truth of the fact stated, but 



102 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

deny the reason given in explanation thereof. The Indian college graduate does not 
go back to savage life because he cannot accept civilization, but because after his 
graduation, when he returns to his tribe, he returns to a social condition in which 
civilization must necessarily perish a stagnant social condition a condition in which 
nothing that he has learned can be of any use to him. The tribe, under what I may 
call the land-in-comrnoii reservation system, does not advance or go back ; it stands 
still ; it is not progressive and it is uot conservative, it is motionless a pond of im- 
pure water with no inlet or outlet, the surface of which is never disturbed by moving 
keel, or foot of swimming bird, or motion of h'sh, or active wind, or gentle breeze. It 
is a condition of stagnation in which civilization cannot survive, and therefore is a 
condition which should be changed not radically, with suddenness, but in such 
manner speedily that the civilization which the graduate of the Indian industrial 
school takes back with him to the tribe may survive and fructify, bearing good fruit 
abundantly. This may be done, not by suddenly abrogating the reservation system, 
but by compelling the Indian to cultivate ground allotted to him with the view of 
ultimately giving him a title to the ground he cultivates ; by giving him a cattle 
range, and compelling him to raise his own beef ; by compelling him to make h'is own 
weapons; to dress in civilized clothing made by himself, and wear boots and shoes man- 
ufactured by his own hands; chiefly by lifting from him the hand of paternalism and 
laying upon him the hand of the law. Returning to a social condition of this kind, 
the Carlisle boy would not go back to savage life, but by reason of his education 
would take his place at the head of his tribe and make it to lie down in the green 
pastures and h ad it beside the still waters of Christian civilization. 

In this connection I must make a suggestion. Dr. Rhoads told us, in opening the 
conference, -that two-thirds of the Indian reservations were unfit for agricultural 
uses, and only fit for grazing purposes. Many thousands of acres of these lands have 
been leased by the Indians to cattle men, and on them the cowboy acts as herdsman. 
Out of the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation the cattle men and all their cattle have 
been driven by a proclamation, and the policy of exclusion may soon expel all the 
cattle men from all the other reservations. Hundreds of thousands of acres of grazing 
lands will thus be rendered useless, while the Government will expend hundreds of 
thousands of dollars in buying beef for the Indians who should be given herds of cattle 
and compelled to raise beef for themselves and beef for the market. This is an un- 
fortunate condition of affairs. Must it be continued ? Must the grazing lands of the 
reservations lie idle, unused either by white man or Indian ? I hope uot. Would it 
be contrary to the policy that dictates the exclusion of cattle men from the reserva- 
tion to admit the cattle of white men to the reservations ? Might not the Government 
say to cattle men, " You may contract with Indian tribes to graze your cattle on their 
reservations; you may take your herds to the line of the reservations and deliver 
them to the Indians under a contract to graze them for a certain time, and then ro'ind 
them up and deliver them to you at any place named in the contract"? I think this 
might be legally and wisely said. If I am correct in this, the grazing lands of the 
reservations might thus be utilized and the Indians be thus furnished with a profitable 
employment employment as herdsmen. Thus might the school boys returning from 
the Indian industrial schools be supplied with work to do. In this way might the 
Indians be taught how to raise cattle for their own USP, and employment as cowboys 
be given to nearly all the Indians of all the Indian Territory tribes. 

There are a good many other things I might say. but I must conclude my speech, 
which, unfortunately, has been dullness long drawn out ; and I conclude with an as- 
sertion of my belief that President Cleveland's administration will go far in the di- 
rection of a solution of the Indian problem ; will do much towards solving the Indian 
riddle and making safe one of the most dangerous roads along which our statesmen 
have been compelled to travel ever since the foundations of the republic were laid. 

I remember that on the day Mr. Cleveland resigned the office of governor of the 
State of New York, a gentleman led into the executive chamber at Albany a little 
boy, a son of his, and said, " Governor Cleveland, this is a blind son of mine. He is 
a student at New York in a school for the blind, in which you used to be a teacher." 
The governor took the boy by the hand, and said, " I am glad to see you." The boy 
replied, "I wish I could see you. I heard so much talk about you and I wanted to 
come here. I wish I could see you." The governor was so affected that tears welled 
up in his eyes, which looked kindly down upon the unfortunate boy who stood there 
in darkness that would never know a, ray of light. 

Years before, in the school in which that boy was then a pupil, the man who is now 
the President of the United States had taught blind boys and girls how to see with 
their hands all the beauties of literature had led them from the starless darkness 
of ignorance into the broad daylight of knowledge. He has now a more difficult task 
to perform. He is asked to lead more than a quarter of a million of human beings 
who are blind, to all the blessings we enjoy ; who are living in the darkness of ignor- 
ance, out of that darkness into the broad light of Christian civilization, and open 
their eyes to ail the now unseen glories that surround them. 1 hope he will be en- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF' INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 103 

abled to do this, and that before he retires from the high office he fills, the Indian, 
as well as the white man and the negro, will stand in the dignity of manhood, clothed 
with citizenship as with a garment, master of his own destiny, holding in his hand 
the ballot and having the right to say at the ballot-box, " I consent," and " I forbid," 
to say to public officers of high and low degree, " You may," "Yon must," and "You 
shall not." [Great applause.] 

General ARMSTRONG. I was all through the Indian Territory several years ago, and 
I believe the lauds there have great possibilities as to grazing and to cattle raising. 
The Government is giving the Indians of the wilder tribes $400,000 worth of beef 
yearly, and they can raise it all. Major" Hunt's idea was to have the Government 
put a small portion of this sum into cattle, to be fed upon tho&e unused pastures, thus 
training the Indian to work, saving a great deal of expense to the Government, and 
ceasing to pauperize the Indians. Turning the Indian resources to account is an ex- 
cellent idea. I have great hope from Mr Oberly's work in that direction. In regard 
to the Teachers' Conference, much good could be done by drawing the teachers and 
superintendents together. This is the very thing to do. We have found no difficulty 
about text-books at Hampton, though some used elsewhere are absurd. Mr. Oberly's 
point was well made with reference to so using rations as to promote attendance at 
school. I think Mr. Oberly's views are right. In IBtfl I went to Dakota, and have 
since visited nearly all the reservations this side of the Rocky Mountains, and one 
thing has struck me the argument to the stomach is powerful. It is to that part of the 
man we must appeal, and we must put it in the power of the agent to use this sort of 
an appeal. Even in the present condition of things great good is being done under the 
authority issuing from Washington, which Mr. Oberly has spoken of. He spoke of 
schools where boys do washing and house work, and all that. I have no doubt they do 
a good deal of that kind of work, but at some of the better class of Indian schools, in the 
best Government schools, excellent industrial work is done. The girls become too good 
for the common painted braves, but not too good for earnest working men. From 
Hampton we have sent out one hundred and forty -rive pupils, and we have found 
that one-third have disappointed our expectations. Miss Ludlow and Miss Elaine 
Goodale have examined carefully what becomes of the returned Indians. There has 
not been one who has turned his powers against civilization ; and while their sur- 
roundings have pushed some of them down to blanket life, tw%thirds of them have 
been saved. A few have married whites, and a few have made good homes. I have 
a feeling that Mr. Oberly is to be the leading man in Indian education. From the 
force he has manifested here, I believe we can look to him. I believe there is a con- 
stituency growing all over'the East who accept all these recent chaneres and blessings. 
If I here is to Le a IH.-W spiritual ibicc put iulo the work, we bhull look 10 Mr. Obcilv 
for it. 

Colonel McMicHAEL. I would like to speak with reference to the attitude of Presi- 
dent Cleveland. His position is that he proposes to execute the laws. His attention 
was called to the state of things among the Cheyennes and Arapahoes. By leases 
which should pay the Indians in cattle and money for the privilege of grazing in 
their territory, and a few under color of losses of cattle, men had got into that country 
and possessed themselves of the best lands of the Indians, and this country was sup- 
posed to be on the brink of an Indian war. I had occasion to observe the attitude of 
the Department of the Interior in regard to this. They said a 'treaty should be exe- 
ecuted; that the leases were no^ strictly legal, so the President decided to send out 
General Sheridan. General Sheridan recommended that as the cattle men were in- 
truders they should be turned out, and President Cleveland turned them out. So far 
as the general subject of Indian civilization is concerned, I think we haye in some 
respects exaggerated its difficulties ; and the advantage of having a sincere and honest 
man at the helm, like the gentleman who has spoken this morning, is just this, he ig 
able to apply a critical spirit to this system, or w r ant of system. I have the impres- 
sion that matters can be simplified. We make the work too difficult. But we don't 
give enough credit to the Indian. What have the Indians of the civilized tribes 
done ? They have schools, a representative government, an executive who rules 
over them. They have a system by which, as I understand, there is no pauper there. 
And what is it that they do not have ? Why they do not have the avarice and the 
selfishness which are necessary to the acquisition of private property. Do not let us 
underrate the Indian. Let us understand that the Indian is capable now of receiving 
civilization and the law. I should be in favor of the immediate expansion over those 
Indian tracts of the law of the territory, and of immediate citizenship, except that 
we must protect the Indian, not against himself, but against ourselves. For one, I 
thank Miss Fletcher for having pointed out how strongly we have been influenced by 
the spirit of trade and gain. We ought all to unite in favor of the Coke bill. That 
is the result of a conference of practical men. I thank Senator Dawes; I heartily 
approve of what he said. We ought also to give special attention to Mr, Lyons's sug- 
gestion in regard to the practical arts of farming. I would call attention to the pos- 
sibilities among the Cheyennes and Arapahoes; if their lands are so desirable for 



104 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

herding and grazing, why cannot we devise some scheme for a diminution in the ex- 
penses of the United States? I think that in the Senate of the United States, in the 
administration of the Government, and in the White House, we have friends who will 
co-operate with ns in the purposes of this conference. 

Senator DAWES. I think I should say something in the line of what the gentleman 
has said who has jnst sat down. Nothing is so important as that the people have 
confidence in those who administer the laws. Everybody knows that my political 
sympathies are very far apart from those of the present administration. But I have 
known Mr. Lamar: he came into Congress the same time I did, before the war. Mr. 
Atkins was there then, an old member of Congress when Mr. Lamar and I came, in 
1857. Although we have been opposed to each other politically, we have enjoyed an 
unbroken friendship through the whole time. Before it was known who was to be Sec- 
retary of the Interior, Mr. Lamar came over to our side of the chamber and conferred 
with those most familiar with Indian aifairs, and got their advice as to whether it 
would not be a good thing to make Mr. Atkins Commissioner of Indian Affairs. There 
were Republicans who, in the Senate, gave their hearty approval to that nomination. 
I want to- say further, that in every one of the new measures adopted by the new ad- 
ministration, they have consulted with Republicans, and with those who have had the 
work at heart. It is due to the administration that they should have Republican in- 
dorsement. So far, they are entitled to the confidence of those who have the future 
of the Indian at heart. I go back to Washington with great confidence that the 
executive part of this Government will co-operate with us in all healthy, hearty meas- 
ures. One difficulty in this problem is the necessary transfer from one set of hands 
to another, and it would have been disastrous to this cause if the administration had 
fallen into other hands than these who are in sympathy with us. I think it due to 
those gentlemen that this conference bear testimony to the confidence with which they 
have inspired us. 

TRIBUTE TO HELEN HUNT JACKSON. 

The Hon. Erastus Brooks spoke feelingly of the death of Mrs. Jackson, to whom 
reference had been made many times during the conference, and offered the following 
resolutions : 

fiesolred, That the members of this conference first called and now continued in the 
interests of the Indian inhabitants of the United States, have heard with profound 
sorrow of the death of Mrs. Helen Jackson. Her long and earnest work to secure the 
moral and mental welfare of the Indian race, her unselfish, persistent, and grand work, 
by her presence, her pen, and her intercessions for many years with the Government 
and people for their civil rights and personal comfort, presents an example of devo- 
tion to and faith in a great public service not excelled in the single life of. any one 
citizen of the country. In her last days, and just when she counted as by the clock 
the limited hours of her earthly existence, in words of thanks to the President of the 
United States, in appeals to the people through the press, in letters to her many 
friends, as well -as in her work known as the Century of Dishonor, recording the deal- 
ings of the Government with the Indian tribes, and in her more recent volume known 
as Ramona, illustrating Indian life, character, and sufferings, she has awakened the 
popular conscience as never before to a sense of the wrongs inflicted upon a whole 
race, and that race not only native to the soil and known as its first inhabitants, but 
yet, as a people, neither recognized as citizens of the United States nor of the States 
of the Union, nor anywhere as persons in law and equity, by compacts or treaties, re- 
garded as possessing constitutional or legal rights common to the rest of mankind. 

Resolved, That the .brilliant and useful life of this truly grand woman still appeals 
to the people of the United States, to Congress, and to the Executive to continue and 
complete the work inspired by her pen, and labored for to the end of her life. 

Dr. WARD. At the suggestion of Dr. Abbott, in whose paper Mrs. Jackson's story, 
Ramona, .was first published, and representing the paper in which her Century of Dis- 
honor was published, I rise to second those resolutions. She was a woman I knew well 
and respected heartily. I believe her example is one to inspire not only every woman 
to a grand zeal for the Indians, but every man as well. 1 don't need to speak at length 
in reference to her character ; she gave her whole heart to the work. If any one ever 
praised her ptory as a work of art, without any reference to the Indian question in it, 
then she said, " It is a failure." She worked grandly for the cause, and I believe we 
should express our respect to her memory. 

Professor PAINTER. I have just received a letter, with mention of Mrs. Jackson, from 
J. W. Davis, of Boston, with whom I visited Mrs. Jackson only a few days before her 
death. I was an entire stranger to her, and the nurse said she was so feeble she could 
not see me, but when she received my card I heard her exclaim, "Oh! Is it Mr. Painter? 
Show him in.' 7 This people lay heavily upon her heart. She told me she had put her 
life almost into that book Ramona. She was a little apprehensive that the artistic 



REPOET OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 105 

part of the book might possibly overshadow its philanthropic purpose, and she gav& 
this charge to us, that the rights, the interests, and the wrongs of the people whosfr 
history she gives should receive our constant attention. The general impression that 
she has idealized the facts, as well as the characters, is a wrong impression. I wish 
that with that book might go her report to Congress, for that report of facts is but 
the skeleton around which she hung her beautiful story. 

General WHITTLESEY. On this occasion it is proper to say that last Saturday I had 
a conversation with Commissioner Atkins, in. which I asked him what measures he 
had taken for the Indians of Southern California. He said he was trying to inform 
himself fully in regard to them. Among other things he was reading the book called 
Ramona, and it was stirring up his mind in behalf of those Indians. I told him that 
I had read it, and that it did not exaggerate in the least the wrongs of the Indians 
in Southern California. I asked him if he had had his attention called to the report of 
Mrs. Jackson two years ago to the Secretary of the Interior. He made a memo- 
randum of it and said he would take it with him to the Indian Territory next week. 
I asked him what we could do here at this conference to strengthen his hands, and 
what was the purpose of the present administration with regard to the Indians. He 
said, " You can assure the friends of the Indian who gather there that, in the first 
place, the administration will be very firm in the defense of the rights of the Indians 
to territory and property of every kind; that we shall pursue with great earnestness 
the policy of settling the Indians upon their own homesteads, and push the matter of 
Indian education with all the means Congress will give us," 

Professor PAINTER. Mrs. Jackson propped herself up in bed, took the last report she 
happened to have with her, addressed it to President Cleveland with the compli- 
ments of Mrs. Jackson, and said to me, "Give him my thanks for the Crow Creek 
matter." 

President GATES, of Rutgers College. To me, the profound significance of Mrs. 
Jackson's life lies just here: We easily say she gave her life to the work, but I tell 
you this Indian question will never be settled till God sends deep down into the hearts 
of the citizens of the country just that spirit. It is going to cost sacrifice of comfort 
and of life to settle this question. The Sermon O n the Mount is to be proclaimed 
statute law, and that is what Dr. Abbott meant, and I thank him for what he said. 
He always lifts me up to the mount of privilege when he speaks. Yet we all know 
that the growth of institutions and law must be slow. What holds us together when 
some* hold the extreme views of Dr. Abbott and some want to go more slowly ? We 
are held together because we are working together in sympathy with the views of 
thousands of Christian people. I was touched with Miss Fletcher's remark that she 
had been hungry with the Indians. It is so contemptibly easy to meet here in luxu- 
rious quarters and talk about the Indians, but there has got to be this earnest zeal, 
this warm giving up of the life. There has been a deal of that giving of the life to 
those neglected children of the frontier, and there must bo more of it. The su- 
preme significance of Mrs. Jackson's death was the consecration of her life. Some- 
times light breaks out in a word. In reading my Greek Testament where it says, 
" I was naked and ye clothed me," it struck me anew. Miss Fletcher has lived there ; 
Miss Robinson has been there; General Armstrong has been there; and General 
Crook is living among them. God give us grace to share in the spirit that has ren- 
dered the closing days of Mrs. Jackson's life the life of a saint. If we lived back in the 
past three or four hundred years, she would be sainted in the calendar. Let us have 
that spirit ; it is the spirit of the gospel which sends people out to live a life of priva- 
tion and drudgery. To give your life to this work is no light thing. 

Miss FLETCHER. So much has been said, and so well said, that lay on my heart, that 
it seems as though silence were better for me, but I cannot forego the pleasure of 
bearing my testimony to the beauty of Mrs. Jackson's life. To work among these 
people saps close to the fountain of power of us women. The stress and the burden 
of these helpless ones she helped with all her power, and yet could not, in one short 
lifetime, lift the burden; the heavy hand of disease was laid upon her. My friends, 
work sometimes wears out the body, but the spirit lives and triumphs. She has passed 
on to a higher phase of work, inspiring us who remain to fulfill for her that which 
she was not able to do. I feel that the Mission Indians are the bequest of Helen Hunt 
Jackson, and if we love her and honor her let us be faithful, and complete what she 
has left us to do. 

President FISK. I am in hearty sympathy with all that has been said. Never did 
better heart throb in human bosom than that of Helen Hunt Jackson. I first met her 
at a meeting of commissioners sent out to adjust the trouble with the Ute Indians in 
the heart of Colorado. Some one came in and said, " There is one of the brightest 
women in the world out there, and she wants to see you." I told the messenger to 
tell her to wait. When I went out I met Helen Hunt ; it was just after her marriage 
with Mr. Jackson. She said, "I have come to this distant-place that I might speak 
in behalf of the Utes." She was admitted to the conference, and such a magnificent 



106 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

impression as she made I can never forget. We cannot fathom that Providence that 
takes such an one from us in the strength of her powers and influence. 

Her weapon still was bright, 

Her shield was lifted high ; 
To smite the wiong, protect the right, 

What happier hour to die? 

Our hearts lie buried in the dust, 

With her, so true and tender; 
Let every murmuring heart be still, 
As, bowing to God's sovereign will, 

Our best-loved we surrender. 

The resolutions were then passed, the entire conference rising. 

THE PLATFORM ADOPTED. 

It was then moved and seconded that the platform, as presented by the business 
committee, be accepted and adopted by the conference. 

President FISK said: I drifted into a colored church one Sunday morning; a colored 
man was preaching, and there seemed to have been some sort of a difficulty. He 
said : " There is always two sides to a question ; we have the buttonites and the aiiti- 
bnttonites; the silverites and the anti-silverites. And so it was in the days of Noah 
and the flood ; they had the dilnvians, who believed in the flood, and the ante-dilu- 
vians, who did'nt believe in the flood." I think we have reached that point when we 
are ail diluvians. [Laughter.] We believe in a flood that shall wash away the 
wrongs of the Indians. , 

The platform was then adopted by a unanimous vote. 

A SPECIAL COMMITTEE. 

Mr. OBERLY. Mr. President, I would like to make a suggestion ; the resolutions 
having met the unanimous approval of this conference, it strikes me that they will 
do good only by getting them before the public where they will attract attention. 
Now, how can that be done? I suggest, in order to do it in an effective way, and 
bring these resolutions to the attention of the President, and by that method to the 
attention of the people, that a delegation of this conference, of five gentlemen and 
four ladies, be appointed, and instructed to prepare an address, in which these resolu- 
tions be presented personally to President Cleveland. In this \vay the country will 
have its attention attracted to them. 

Dr. WARD. I heartily approve of Mr. Oberly's suggestion, and I would make a mo- 
tion that a committee of nine bo appointed, of which the president of this meeting 
shall be chairman ; that four other gentlemen and four ladies be appointed to attend 
to the matter, and I would suggest that the committee be appointed by the chairman. 

The motion was passed. Subsequently General Fisk appointed the "following cein- 
mittee : 

Hoti. Erastus Brooks, Hon. Albert K. Smiley, Rev. Lyman Abbott, D. D., Mrs. A. 
S. Q u in ton, Miss Alice C. Fletcher, and Mrs. J. C. Kitme> . 

Mr. BROOKS. I have been connected with the press a great many years, and I think 
if a copy of the resolutions be sent to the Associated Press for t he press of the country, 
with a request that they be published, that that request would be responded to at 
once ; and I make a motion to that effect. Passed. 

The conference then took a recess until evening. During the afternoon the guests 
were given an excursion to Lake Minnewaska. 

THE CLOSING SESSION. 

At the beginning of the closing session, Mrs. F. E. H. Haynes, secretary of the 
Women's Executive Committee of Home Missions, of New York, gave an exceedingly 
pleasing and interesting account of a recent visit to Alaska, during which she visited 
the mission school among the Indians. 

The Rev. Dr. Kendall, at the request of Mrs. Haynes, spoke further of the work in 
Alaska, giving many interesting and encouraging i'acts. 

At the request of the president, Miss Fletcher told an interesting story of the build- 
ing of a cottage on the Omaha Reservation by the ladies of the Connecticut Indian 
Association. The cottage is for a young married couple, Philip and Minnie Stabler, 
who were educated at Hampton. It was built in consequence of a suggestion made 
by Miss Fletcher at theMohonk conference of last year, tiie object being to equip the 
couple Avith a civilized home, in order that the savage tribal surroundings, which 
they would otherwise have to meet, might not drag them back into savagery. It is 
an experiment which promises the best results. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 107 

THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA INDIANS. 

Professor PAINTER. Mr. President, I was requested by the Indian Rights Association, 
whose agent I have been some time at Washington, to take a trip out through the 
West and look up some matters, and among other places I went to Southern Califor- 
nia to look into the condition of the Mission Indians. Passing through the Indian 
Territory, I visited a number of tribes, and from there I went on through New Mex- 
ico, Arizona, Southern California, then went among the Piutes on the reservation and 
scattered down the railroad, then into "Idaho, and among the Bannocks and Sho- 
shones, then to the Modocs to see what has been done there under the lead of our 
Quaker friends. Those people have divided up that little reservation, each with his 
little farm and his little crops. Most of them are Christian men ; and I found that 
something can be done for the Indians, even upon a reservation. But I went down 
especially to the Mission Indians in California. These Indians, known as the Mis- 
sion Indians, are living, some of them, upon old Mexican grants. The Mission Fathers, 
when they came to California, built a number of missions at different points, gather- 
ing the Indians about these for an education, and to teach them industries. So they 
became self-supporting, and Christianized, according to the ideas of the Catholic 
Church. The country was then all unoccupied, and nobody cared how much laud 
was claimed, so that large sections of the country were attached to the mission. In 
1824-1833 the Mexican Government secularized these missions, leaving only a small 
part of the land that bad been claimed lor the mission in connection with the mission 
buildings. These lauds occupied by the Indians never were legally granted ; they 
were to be the permanent possession of these Indians. When we came into possession 
of the country, the titles of those old grants were doubtful; they were in dispute. 
The lines were run with great vagueness. Government sent a commission, in 1856, 
who invited the claimants to those grants to appear and make good their titles or they 
would lapse. The Indians were not invited. Those of you who have read Ramona 
will recall one instance. Certain Indians were in a most beautiful valley, and sup- 
posed their title to be beyond dispute. There had been an especial arrangement 
made with them. The first intimation they bad was the appearance of the sheriff 
with an order of ejectment, not only to take possession of the lands, but to pay the 
costs out of property of the Indians. This is the condition of a laige number of 
these Indians' titles to these lauds they lapsed because they did not appear before 
the commission to make good their title. There was still considerable land, but it 
passed out of Indian control upon purchase by white men, they pushing the Indians 
off' the lands. The treaty holds these lauds to be the property of the Indians. A gen- 
tleman of Sau Bernardino, who had purchased one of these grants, brought a suit of 
ejectment to remove the Indians Irorn the grant. The United States took up the case 
to defend the Indians' title. We were looking forward to the issue of that suit with 
much interest, involving the title of about fifteen hundred Indians, and money to 
the amount of about f&00,000. We were told that the Indians were in possession, 
-and that if the suit was not pressed it was the loss of the man who had purchased 
the grant, and therefore it made no difference to the Indians; buD surely this was not 
the case, for they were being pushed from those old grants at many other points. I 
went to see the lawyers who had charge of the case, to know why the suit was not 
brought to issue. 1 found that the senior partner had gone out, and a new firm had 
been formed, and the case was decided against the Indians on default. The friends 
of the Indians down there do not doubt that the lawyers sold out the case. I wish 
to read a petition which the Indians have drawn up and sent to Washington, which 
tells the story in their own way. It was written in Spanish, and I give you the trans- 
lation. [The petition w T as read.] 

Now that is just ihe condition of those Indians. Some of them are on Executive 
reservations, the title to which is uncertain, and they are being pushed aside. Many 
of them are able to read and write. I had conferences with them, and it was touch- 
ing, even to tears, to hear the stories they told of being crowded and driven from 
their lands, or told they must not keep sto'ck, for the people don't want them to eat 
the grass. 1 see no deliverance from these things, unless the Government will take 
up the matter, and do what I asked the Commissioner to do send some reliable man 
from the East to defend the title of the Indians to these lands. I said, "These Indians 
have rights, or they have none. If they have rights, it is time the land was given 
them. If they have no rights, I don't see why we send agents there, for the Indians 
are as competent to support themselves as white men." There are only a few thou- 
sands of these Indians left in Southern California. In 1851 there were 13,000 in the one 
county of San Diego, now there are not more than 3,500 in all Southern California. 
These are the people for whom Mrs. Jackson labored, and for whom she gave, iu a cer- 
tain sense, her life. She has left behind her an earnest prayer that the cause of these 
Indians shall be taken up. I wish something could be done by this conference to bring 
the attention of the Government to this people. It is a shame, that in this Christian 
country, and with our boasted institutions, this people should be treated worse than 



108 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

under the old Mexican Government. The schools don't amount to much. ' I understood 
that the school at Anaheim, which I believe is under the care of the Presbyterian 
Church, had only four or five girls in it; it had good teachers but no pupils. The in- 
fluence of the Catholic priest is felt there. I found in some, of the day schools of the 
reservations that they had good teachers but no pupils ; in other places they had over- 
flowing schools but IIOL teachers. Very little is being done for their instruction. Many 
of them are being driven out. This is the case also with the Piutes, a large number 
of whom are scattered up and down the railroad, who will not go on the reservation. 
There are Indians in certain places who will never go upon any reservation. If the 
attempt was made to put them on the reservation they would take to the mountains. 
They are supporting themselves, and don't want any help. But their children are 
growing up in ignorance. It would be wrong to take these people who are support- 
ing themselves and put them on a reservation ; but they will perpetuate themselves, 
and I think something should be done. 

Question. Would thy permit their children to go to school? 

Professor PAINTER. I think they would. It is a question what should be done ; 
but something must be done, by church or State. * 

Mr. OBERLY. Did you communicate these facts to the Indian Bureau ? 

Mr. PAINTER. Yes. 

Miss COOK. We have done it for four or five years, right straight along. 

Professor PAINTER. The San Ysabel Indians have been notified that they must take 
their stock off from that ranch ; that the man who claims it is going to put cattle for 
three dairies on it. I talked with an Indian who said he was going to stick until re- 
moved by an officer authorized to do it. 

Mr. OBERLY. Wouldn't it be well for this conference to pass a resolution to this 
effect, that this conference respectfully and earnestly calls the attention of the Ad- 
ministration to the condition of the Mission Indians, and petitions that immediate 
and effective steps be taken to protect them in their rights to the land they may have ? 
That the lands they now occupy and possess they may have ? If a resolution to that 
effect were adopted by this conference it would be presented to the President, with 
the other resolutions, by the delegation you shall appoint. I am sure if these ladies, 
who will make part of the delegation to the President, were to present to him the 
story of the misery of these Indians, and call to his attention the work that has been 
done in their behalf by the woman whose eulogy has been spoken here to-day, that 
he would be moved to take some steps with regard to them. I move that some such 
resolution be prepared. 

The Rev. Dr. Kendall offered the following resolution, which was adopted unani- 
mously : 

Resolved, That this conference respectfully calls the attention of the Administration 
to the condition of the Mission Indians of California, and petitions that immediate 
and effective steps be taken to protect them in whatever rights they may have to the 
lands they now occupy. 

LETTER FROM SENATOR MORGAN, OF ALABAMA. 

The secretary read the following letter from Senator Morgan, of Alabama: 

WASHINGTON, D. C., August 24, 1865. 

MY DEAR SIR : I am afraid to promise myself the pleasure of accepting your kind 
offer of hospitality on the interesting occasion you mention in your note of 17th in- 
stant. It has been near a year since I was at home, and I expect to spend October in 
Alabama. 

It would be very gratifying to me to attend the annual Indian conference. Good 
results will be almost a necessity of the meeting in this autumn. The country was 
never so prepared for a definite movement for the benefit of the Indians, and our 
knowledge of their wants was never so complete. Common-sense views of Indian 
affairs and a keener appreciation of our duties and obligations than we have formerly 
shown will now place them on a footing "before the law " that will soon secure their 
quiet and safe assimilation into the body of our citizenship. 

There is now no hostile Indian tribe within the United States, and it is time we had 
applied to them the laws of peace rather than the laws of war. To apply to them any 
laws beside their tribal laws we must provide for them at least a qualified citizen- 
ship. The duty and benefit of obedience to our laws should be in some sense recipro- 
cal. The Indians are jealous of their rights and have an acute sense of injustice. 
Right or wrong, this jealousy has often led them to hostilities, which with them 
always mean destruction to all enemies. 

If they participate in the new governments we are compelled to provide for them, 
they will be less jealous of our rule, more obedient to law, and better prepared for 
our civilization than they are under existing conditions. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 1 09 

" The white man's road" crosses the Indian's trail at right angles, and he is not, as 
yet, prepared for the new journey, If our road leads more in the direction he has 
been going, he will follow it with less reluctance. 

The broad highway of our civilization, which is the result of our citizenship and 
its regulating forces and constraints, is too wide to be, at present, attractive to the 
Indian ; as Broadway, New York, is not an enjoyable place to the " cowboy." 

We want for each tribe a simple plan of government, with few enactments, suited 
to the stage of progress of the tribe, in the enactment and enforcement of which they 
shall have a voice through a representative. 

The Indian agent or inspector, an Army officer, and a chief or chosen delegate 
would make a suitable legislative and executive body for a tribe such as the Chey- 
ennes. A government like that provided for the District of Columbia, with legisla- 
tive powers confined to a few subjects, would do to begin with. I am only making 
very crude suggestions, from which you can gather the drift of my thoughts. We 
find in the five civilized tribes the highest proof of ability to govern themselves in 
strict accordance with our splendid systems of local and federal powers. They feel 
so strong in their power to govern that they are decidely averse to the "foreign 
rule " of the United States. 

As to these nations (for they are no longer tribes in the Indian sense) our duty is 
pressing to extend over them' the political supremacy of the United States. This is 
needed for their good and our peace. In what manner or form this should be done 
is a delicate question, but it should be done at once. They have reached the stage 
of civilization which entitles them to citizenship aud presses upon us the duty of im- 
posing on them the duties of citizenship. 

The Constitution of the United States, which pervades our whole country, should 
be rendered personally applicable to these Indians. The appellate jurisdiction of the 
United States Supreme Court (at least in reference to all constitutional questions) 
should be made available to correct the judgments of their highest courts of appeals. 

A circuit aud district court should be established in the Indian Territory, with 
proper arrangement of jurisdiction, and Indians, selected for intelligence and probity, 
should serve on juries there. But I am only on the margin of the subject, and am 
merely illustrating my idea that we must now begin to govern Ihe Indians in the name 
and with the power of the United States, providing a form of government adapted to 
each tribe, if need be, and giving to them some sort of representation in making and 
enforcing the laws. The arm of the law will rule them when the sword will only 
slay them, and we ought not to withhold it. One more suggestion. I would establish 
military schools amongst the wilder tribes, enlisting males trom say twelve to twenty 
years of age as cadets, to be educated and trained in the "school of the soldier," for 
a period of six years, with pay, clothing, and rations, and with the right to re-enlist, 
on better pay, at the end of the term, &c. 

English rudiments, geography, and arithmetic would constitute the chief features 
of the course of instruction, united with technical instruction in the co < mon arts. 
An Indian is, by nature, a devotee of military studies and arts. I would use that in- 
clination, so fostering to his pride, as a means of teaching him discipline, a fondness 
for civil pursuits, the English language, &c. He would retain the affection of his 
people while traveling the " white man's road. " 

In your beautiful retreat at Cake Mohonk you may not find it irksome to look 
over these meager and ill-arranged thoughts. They are the outline of what I coii- 
cieve to be our true Indian policy, and 1 present them in the confidence that you are 
willing to hear anything (that is advanced in a proper spirit) intended to benefit those 
people. 

With sincere respect, 

JNO. T. MORGAN. 

Mr. ALBERT K. SMILEY. 

After resolutions and remarks of hearty thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Smiley for their 
unbounded hospitality, the conference adjourned. 



ROLL OF MEMBERS. 

General S. C. Armstrong, principal Hampton Normal School, Hampton, Va. 
Rev. Dr. Lymau Abbott, editor Christian Union, New York, and wife. 
Hon. Erastus Brooks, State board of health of New York, West New Brighton, S. I. 
Mr. R. D. W. Bryan and wife, superintendent Indian schools, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 
Miss Burr, The Hartford Times, Hartford, Conn. 
Miss M. S. Cook, Indian Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. W. W. Craunell, secretary E. N. Y. branch Woman's National Indian Associa- 
tion, Albany, N. Y. 



110 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Hon. John Chaiiton, Board Indian Commissioners, Nyack, N. Y., and wife. 

Senator H. L. Dawes and wife, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Mrs. J. B. Dickinson, president Woman's National Indian Association, New York. 

General Clinton B. Fisk, Board Indian Commissioners, New York, and wife. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Peabody Museum Archeology and Ethnology, Cambridge r 
Mass. 

Rev. Addison P. Foster, Executive Committee, Am. Miss. Assn., Jersey City, N. J. 

Hon. Philip C. Garrett, commissioner of public charities, State of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Delano Goddard, Botson, Mass. 

President Merrill E. Gates, Rutgers College, and Board Indian Commissioners, New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Rev. Dr. John W. Harding, editorial writer, Springfield Republican, Longmeado\v , 
Mass., and wife. 

Rev. Dr. Georg* A. Howard, Catskill, N. Y. 

Mrs. F. E. H. Haynes, corresponding secretary Woman's Executive Committee of 
Home Missions, New York. 

Mrs. Augustus Henimenway, Boston. 

Rev. Dr. H. Kendall, secretary Presbyterian Board Home Missions, Boston, Mass. 

Col. John C. Kinney, associate editor Courant, Hartford, Conn. 

Mrs. John C. Kinney, president Connecticut Indian Rights Association, Hartford, 
Conn. 

Hon. William H. Lyon, Board Indian Commissioners, Brooklyn, N. Y., and wife. 

President Horatio O. Ladd, University of New Mexico, Santa Fe", N. Mex. 

Hon. William McMichael, Board Indian Commissioners, New York. 

President Edward H. Magill, Swarthmore College. Swarthmore, Pa. 

Hon. John H. Oberly, United States superintendent Indian schools, Washington, 
D. C. 

Prof. C. C. Painter, corresponding secretary Nat. Ed. Comrn., Great Barrington, 
Mass., and wife. 

Mr. Moses Pierce, trustee Hampton School, Norwich, Conn. 

Mrs. Amelia S. Quinton, secretary mission work, Woman's National Indian Associa- 
tion, Philadelphia. 

President James E. Rhoads, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Mrs. Hannah Whitall Smith, Philadelphia. 

Rev. Dr. M. E. Strieby, corresponding secretary American Mission Association, New 
York, and wife. 

President L C. Seelye, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 

Ex-Justice W. Strong, Supreme Court United States, Washington, and daughter. 

Hon. Albert K. Smiley, Board Indian Commissioners, and wife. 

Mr. Alfred H. Smiley Miunewaska, N. Y., and wife. 

Dr. James Carey Thomas, trustee Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., and 
wife. 

Rev. Ame Vennema, pastor Reformed Church, New Paltz, N. Y. 

General E. Whittlesey, secretary Board Indian Commissioners, Washington, D. C., 
and wife. 

Rev. ~>r. William Hays Ward, editor Independent, New York. 

Mr. James Wood, president Historical Society Westchester County, Mt. Kisco, N. Y., 
and wife. 



WASHINGTON, D. C., November 10, 1885. 

The committee from the Mohonk conference, General Clinton B. Fisk, Hon. Erastus 
Brooks, Hon. Albert K. Smiley, Rev. Lyman Abbott, D. D., Mrs. A. S. Quinton, Miss 
Alice C. Fletcher, Mrs. J. C. Kinney, together with Hon. William H. Lyon, Hon. Merrill 
E. Gates, Hon. John Charl ton, Hon. E. Whittlesey, of the Board of Indian Commissioners; 
Maj. John H. Oberly, Superintendent of Indian Education; Mr. A. B. Upshaw and Miss 
M. S. Cook, of the Indian Bureau, were received by the President, and introduced by 
General Fisk. 

Mr. PRESIDENT : We come here representing the late conference held at Mohonk to com- 
municate to you their conclusions, and to interest you to go still further, and to express 
to you our hearty gratitude for what you have already done for the cause which is so 
near the hearts of these people here. We want no office and have no friends who want 
office. To Mr. Brooks has been assigned the duty of preparing a paper presenting the 
views of the conference. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. Ill 

Mr. BROOKS then read the following address: 

To the Hon. GROVER CLEVELAND, 

President of the United States. 

DEAR SIR : The committee before you are here by appointment of the recent confer- 
ence of the friends of the Indians held at Lake Mohonk, in the State of New York. 

While we feel very sincerely, and upon the best evidence, that no personal appeals are 
necessary to awaken your official interest in the present condition of the Indian inhabi- 
tants of the United States, we hope through you to call the attention of Congress and of 
the people at large to just what that condition is. In your inaugural address you most 
truly said that "the conscience of the people demands that the Indians within our bound- 
aries shall be iairly and honestly treated, as wards of the Government, and their educa- 
tion and civilization promoted with a view to their ultimate citizenship. ' ' 

And among the recent last thoughts of the late Helen Hunt Jackson, given in a letter 
to you, were these words : 

" From my deathbed I send you messages of my heartfelt thanks for what you have 
already done for the Indians. I am dying happier for the belief I have that it is your 
hand that is destined to strike the first steady blow toward lifting the burden of in- 
famy from our country and righting the wrongs of the Indian race." 

Everywhere the voice of an intelligent and philanthropic public opinion responds to 
this appeal made by one of the most gifted and unselfish women of the country. 

The questions which, in the briefest reference, seem to us to demand the most imme- 
diate attention are those which relate to land and education, homes and families, and 
whicfr in these relations seem to us to be what is now known as the new Indian policy. 

The seizure of Indian lands is as old as the first settlements of the continent. We 
trace them to the earliest discoveries and settlements, Spanish, Dutch, English, and on 
the whole they show a worse practice in the past one hundred years than before. The 
pressure for the past fifty years has been upon the Western frontiers, and in all these 
years has been in the interest of gain and speculation. At no time has the real welfare 
of the Indian been the primary purpose of the white man. Neither the sacredness of 
Indian homes, nor of the family, nor the rights of persons, have arrested the advanced 
steps of those demanding Indian lands. The four hundred treaties, made from time to 
time with the Indian tribes, nearly all failed of execution, and all contracts and treaties 
were finally abandoned by the Government in 1871, and agreements, sometimes written, 
sometimes verbal, have taken their place. 

What is now needed in regard to lands is severalty and individuality, with the pro- 
tection of law for persons and families; and with this possession and protection must 
follow settlements in homes, land cultivation, and an end of wandering through valleys 
and forests, over mountains and rivers, in pursuit of game. The forests have been so 
substantially deprived of game as to make this reliance no longer possible for support; 
nor is this roaming from place to place in any way practical or desirable. The time has 
now come to limit this restless spirit of aggression and change, and to protect the Indian 
in fixed and well-defined territory; in a word, by prompt and faithful preparation and 
suitable education to make the Indian a self-supporting citizen, and with all the rights, 
privileges, and duties which belong to citizenship. 

The seizure of Indian lands by white men and the want of law and power to protect 
the Indian in his own possessions have produced most of the wars and disturbances of 
the past one hundred years. These lands, in all in excess of 100,000,000 acres, are now 
needed for the industrial education of the Indians, and it is to be remembered that while 
there are millions of acres suited to grazing, not more than one- tenth of this land is till- 
able land. 

The proof of ability of the Indian to work profitably for himself and for the Govern- 
ment is found in the fact that those who are the most civilized now have under cultiva- 
tion more than 230,000 acres of land upon which in one year was raised 1,000,000 bushels 
of corn, 1,000,000 bushels of wheat, and nearly a million bushels of oats and barley, 
103,000 head of cattle, 1,000,000 sheep, 235,000 horses and mules, 68,000 swine; and 
these figures do not include the products of 60,000 civilized Indians ready for Territorial 
government. 

Of 265,000, 82,000 wear the clothing of white men, while the five civilized tribes live 
in 15,000 houses built by themselves. These tribes in every way are masters of their 
condition and seek no other support. The same is true of nearly all the Indians in New 
Mexico, and of thousands elsewhere. These tribes need more than all else protection 
in their agricultural lands, seeds to plant, implements of industry, and a proper educa 
tion for their children. 

While there is no lack of shrewd Indians, and very many who are idle, lazy, and 
vicious, even the best of them have encountered broken words, broken faith, and broken 
treaties, what else could be expected ? Crime often goes unpunished on the Indian 



112 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

reservations, because there is no law to punish it. On some fifty reservations the Gov- 
ernment is pledged not to render justice between man and man, if the man is an Indian. 
Even the worst criminals have been set free again and again because,- on the one hand, 
there was no law to punish even the crime of murder, nor any law upon the other side 
which allowed an Indian to recover, peaceably or otherwise, the money or goods which 
he had loaned to dishonest white men. No Indian can appear in court, nor can counsel 
be permitted him in court, except by special order from the Indian Department. 

In view of this result some of their number have declared that they need just what 
the white man has the force of law in their behalf as well as, if not more than, the 
preaching of the Gospel. What threy most need is emancipation from this kind of 
bondage, and when fully emancipated and made free the ballot may be put into their 
hands. To secure what is here asked for must be the end of all merely tribal relations 
and reservations, and as speedily as possible the diffusion of the Indians in the United 
States, as largely in Canada, among the white race. More than nine millions of immi- 
grants have been absorbed among the native American people. Six millions of negroes, 
practically made free by a statute, are now a part of the whole privileged population, 
and surely less than three hundred thousand Indians can be absorbed or diffused and in 
a domestic sense settled among the 55,000,000 of our American population. This result 
will come when their tribal relations end, and the man, the woman, the child, become 
the one family and are placed in real homes. Here, inthe course of human events, is 
the certain and reasonably rapid advance toward civilization and full citizenship. 

The successful example of the Oniahas, where under the law, 76,000 acres were set apart 
and 954 separate allotments made to 1,194 persons, the wives receiving like allotments 
with the husbands, and leaving 55,000 acres to be awarded in trust patents to tlfe chil- 
dren, are tried experiments which in two years afford proof both of what is possible, and 
what, when protected by law, will always be successful. Even where it may be easy to 
steal a whole Indian reservation, the broad seal of the United States Government given 
to one or more citizens in evidence of his home and birthright, will become inalienable, 
indivisible, and as enduring as time. Only the free will of the Indian, and the consent 
of the United States Government, can change a compact and contract like this. 

In such a community the civil magistrate may soon take the place of the soldier, and 
what is now paid to support an army will be more wisely expended in the peaceful pur- 
suits of industry, in moral and mental education, and in the settlement of great public 
questions, which for a century and more, which has been called the "century of dis- 
honor," have disturbed the peace of the nation at a cost, all in all, of hundreds of mill- 
ions of dollars in money, and of countless number of lives. 

We leave these and kindred questions to the President, in the belief that it is possi- 
ble by wise legislation, firm and humane ad ministration, to emancipate, naturalize, and 
Christianize those whom you have already declared to be "the wards of the Government," 
and as such, entitled to be "honestly treated," and "by education and civilization pro- 
moted to ultimate citizenship. ' ' 

Rev. LYMAN ABBOT. I shall attempt in a few words to put in my own language the 
principles embodied in the platform adopted by the Mohonk conference. It seems very 
,clear that any Indian policy which will settle the Indian problem must be adopted by 
the consent of the people of the United States, and not by any one section of the coun- 
try. It must be based on the assumption that humanity and justice and righteousness 
are not confined to any one section. The people of the West demand that in the inter- 
est of civilization the reservation system shall go. In that I believe they are right; but 
I do not think they have been right in the methods taken to break down the reservation. 
It should not be by money, fraud, bribery, or force; it should be brought about by a just 
policy adopted by the Government, and not by individual action. The white settler 
looks across the border and sees great prairies untouched by the plow. He sees thou- 
sands of acres of grass, capable of feeding thousands of cattle, with only a few ponies 
grazing upon them. It is the great quantity of unused laud that tempts his greed, and 
so long as it remains unused greed will stretchout its hands to grasp it. We have twice 
the territory of Great Britain secured to barbarism. It should be secured to civilization. 
The Indians cannot be pushed any farther back on to some other reservation or place. 
The Indian is set apart, as it were, to barbaric influences. We put school-houses here 
and churches there. They are merely slits in a wall, through which the light is let into 
a dungeon. All that makes civilization for u$ the daily conflict of man with man 
is shut off. Partly in fear that he will go under in the conflict he will go under with- 
out the conflict \ve want to break down the reservation system and put the Indians in 
the midst of civilization justly, wisely, honestly, with full regard to all obligations in- 
curred and with full regard to the essential rights belonging to the Indian as a man. 
There is no alternative. The only question is one of methods. 

The Indian does not die off, and the indications are that he is increasing rather than 
decreasing in numbers. We are all familiar with the sentiment, ' ' the only good Indian 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 113 

is a dead one, ' ' but apart from all other considerations it costs more to shoot than to 
educate an Indian. The policy of bringing all Indians into one reservation has been 
suggested as an alternative. If any one can tell me where is a good place to put a boil 
on the body, I cau tell where is a good place to put an Indian reservation. It is a sore. 
You say, gather the Indians into the Indian Territory. What do Missouri and Kansas 
say to that? What would we say if an Indian reservation bordered on our farms. No 
one wants to live next to an Indian reservation. It must be abolished, root and branch. 

We want to see the Indian given lands in severally and a homestead, and the rights 
that belong to manhood and citizenship, above all a home the center and source of all 
civilization. I think I may illustrate our thought by referring to what we have done 
in respect to the negro. At the close of the war it .was proposed to put the negro in a 
State by himself, but no one would advocate that now. Then the attempt was made 
to protect him by Federal forces; but by a long and slow process we have come to a much 
wiser policy. We say you must take care of yourself and be remitted to the local courts 
and to the local authorities for your protection. While he has suffered wrong, and while 
he has inflicted wrong on himself by idleness and shiftlessness and vice, the policy of 
leaving him to himself and to the locality where he belongs has been found to be the 
best policy for him. Just that we want done with the Indian race. We want the In- 
dians treated as the negroes were. We want them given homes, implements of industry, 
education, the rights and protection of citizenship, and then we want to say we will not 
feed, or clothe, or pauperize you any more. You must take care of yourself and confront 
the civilization of the nineteenth century. 

Several -things could be done at once: 

First. Some lands have already been allotted to Indians in several ty. The patents 
could at once be given them. Whatever necessary clerical work is required could be 
accelerated. 

Second. Surveys are authorized for ten or twelve reservations. The administration 
can ask Congress to complete and perfect these surveys. 

Third. Two bills, the Sioux bill and the Coke bill, have passed the Senate. Both of 
them look in the direction I have pointed out. We do not think that they are perfect, 
and we are not here to advocate any one particular measure; but the general principle 
of giving lands in severalty to Indians is embodied more or less perfectly in these bills, 
and we believe the administration could ask the next Congress to carry out this prin- 
ciple. 

Fourth. Wherever treaties stand in the way of reform the present administration can 
negotiate for changes in these treaties. I do not see why the present administration 
could not do this at once. It is an Executive matter. The changes should provide for 
giving citizenship in the place of bread and clothing. 

These are the principles which are embodied in these Mohonk resolutions. (We feel 
that this administration is the one to carry out this policy. You have won the confi- 
dence of the Indians by your action in regard to the cattlemen and the Oklahoma lands. ) 
You have won the confidence of the people of the country. (We believe in your pur- 
pose and power to do for the Indians what is right; and we believe that you cau go to 
the Indians and find a ready entrance to their hearts and their judgment in proposing 
the changes which seem essential to their well-being.) 

General FISK. The resolutions embodied in the platform adopted by the conference 
at Mohonk are on this little sheet. I will not read them. We would be glad to have 
them receive your earnest consideration. Those were the conclusions reached by a very 
< large conference composed of ladies and gentlemen from all over the land. They ex- 
pressed the very greatest confidence in yourself, and we would be glad if it should seem 
best to you, in your first message to Congress, to recommend such legislation as would 
initiate such a policy in behalf of the Indians. 

Touching the reservations themselves, Miss Fletcher has prepared a table which we 
should be glad to leave for your information. It shows the unfulfilled treaty obligations 
for the allotment of lands in severalty, the location and names of the reserves, &c., and 
cites the laws. It also gives the names of reservations established by treaty, which have 
not been surveyed and which should be. We think Congress should be asked to pro- 
vide appropriations for such surveys at an early day, and for the survey of reservations 
established by executive order. 

The PRESIDENT. I do not believe that there is much difference in the views of people 
as to the ultimate result to be desired and striven for in Indian matters. The trouble 
is to decide what is the first thing to be done. I find the subject in a complicated, per- 
plexing, and intricate condition. We find Indians > as you say, almost on an equality 
with us in everything that pertains to civilized life, and we find another class of Indians 
who have made no advance, who break out into hostility, frighten all the people near, 
and set things back for years. The question with me is, how shall I pick out what is 
the first thing to be done. Instead of constantly looking at the ultimate end to be 
H. Ex. 109 8 



114 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

reached, about which I do not think there is much difference of opinion, I ask what is 
the immediate thing, what should be done now. Shall we give them more schools and 
more farmers and farming implements and keep up the reservation life until the Indians 
are better prepared to take care of themselves, or stop it all and deed the lands to the 
Indians ? How are we going to get rid of the influence of the old chiefs who oppose 
every step of progress and everything which would weaken tribal supremacy ? There 
are many things to be done. We talk about discontinuing the feeding of Indians. No 
one wants that done more than I; but the moment that is done if there are any hun- 
gry Indians a cry goes up all over the land that they must be fed and the Army is called 
on to feed them and they are fed from army stores. That has been done within the last 
six months. If we do not feed them something happens and the Indians break out and 
they kill a few people, and you know what happens then. 

What perplexes me is to know the right way toward the result of which you have 
spoken, the step which can be surely and which should be immediately taken in that 
direction. How about mixing the Indians with the whites ? You would not drive the 
Indians from the reservations in their present unprotected condition. Is it not neces- 
sary, for a time, to keep them under some degree of tutelage; and, if so, how can it best 
be done? 

The Indians are scattered over a great many reservations widely separated, and we 
seem to be trying to manage them at arm's length. Many people have raised the ques- 
tion whether it could not be done better under a more concentrated condition. With 
all the object is the same; the question is how to do it; what is the most valuable first 
step, how can we get the most benefit in the first year ? 

I myself have learned to acknowledge, and more so every day, the benefit which this 
Government has received and the obligation which it owes to Christian and secular 
teaching. Any one who ignores that instrumentality, merely in point of worldly wis- 
dom, reckons without his host. I have great faith in that. 

Ultimately lands must be given in severalty and the Indians thrown upon their own 
resources, but the question is meantime how best to prepare them for independence; 
and meantime the whites will be just as rapacious and greedy, and we should not do 
anything to make the Indians more exposed and open to that sort of thing. Perhaps if 
we had more concentration of the Indians we might better bring to bear upon them the 
forces which will prepare them for other and better things ; but I have not thought on 
the matter or studied the subject sufficiently to be sure of one course or another. It will 
not do to disturb them in their homes to any great extent, and it might be injurious to 
the Indians to endeavor to concentrate them. 

I do not expect to do all this year, and it may not be much that I can do. Although 
I should desire to do much and to place it among the achievements of my administra- 
tion, yet probably I can only make a beginning. But I want that to be right, and I 
want to know what is the most useful thing that now can be done among the Indians 
and which must be done sooner or later. 

President GATES. What you said in regard to education comes home especially to one 
called to that work. You have struck the keynote in regard to educational forces and 
the sure results which they will work out. Indian affairs are diverse. No man can un- 
derstand them who supposes that they are all alike. The different reservations must be 
held separately in mind. A year and a half of close attention since my appointment on 
the Board of Indian Commissioners leads me to believe that all that looks toward the con- 
centration of Indians will be against their civilization. Suppose these smaller reserva- 
tions be wiped out one by one; suppose you get surveys made and order the allotments 
and deed the lands wherever a small tribe is ready for such action. When the larger 
reservations are opened provision should be made for schools. In Dakota public lands 
certain sections are reserved for school purposes. We want sections in these reservations 
devoted for that purpose, and we want alternate sections given to white settlers so that 
they will settle down among the Indians. Wherever Indians have been next to civili- 
zation, wherever they have had white neighbors, they have done better, of which the 
Omahas are a striking example. The fact that the lands are held by the Indians by an 
inalienable title will keep the worst class of whites, from going on to the alternate sec- 
tions. 

There is a large section of territory gained by the treaty of Guadalnpe Hidalgo, and 
the Indians who came with that territory under the dominion of the United States are en- 
titled to citizenship by the terms of our treaty with Mexico. Suppose you call attention 
to that fact in your message. I think the best way to fit an Indian of average intelli- 
gence for citizenship is to make him a citizen at once. Wherever the Indian has been 
trusted as a policeman he has responded to the trust. I believe he would respond to 
other trusts if they were conferred upon him. In holding fast to a system of education, 
in dealing with the Indians not as a mass but as separate tribes, in scattering them 
among the whites, in breaking up tribal relations, in doing this among the tribes, a few 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 115 

at a time, some sooner than others, and all as fast as they are ready for it, in this, I 
think, is the line of hope. 

Speaking for the educational interests of the country I desire to refer to the interest 
we take in your policy and the gratitude with which we recognize your attitude toward 
education. 

The delegation then called upon the honorable Secretary of the Interior, to whom Gen- 
eral Fisk spoke as follows: 

General FISK. This party has come to express its gratitude that you are in this place. 
We pledge you all the support we can possibly give you, and would be glad to be in- 
structed in any way we can serve you. We come from the outside world a committee 
from the Mohonk Conference, representing largely the religious bodies of the country and 
the philanthropic element of the country. We regretted that you could not have been 
present at the conference held with the President this morning to hear the suggestions 
then made by this committee as to the Indian policy to be pursued. 

The SECRETARY. I can give assurance that they will find the Indian Bureau, and 
especially my branch of it, in a state of perfect receptivity. 

General FISK. We want to find out, if possible, how soon the patents to the Puyallups 
will be issued. For some reason their issuance was suspended by a former administra- 
tion just as they were ordered. We ascertained that they were brought back from the 
Laud Office by some order of this Department and that for several months they have been 
in this Department awaiting action. The Indians are very clamorous for these patents, 
and are fearful that they may lose their lands. 

The SECRETARY. I will have an inquiry made and will take steps to hasten the issu- 
ance of those patents. 

General FISK. The friends of the Indians are of course quite anxious to see the Indian 
in his own home, and the more we can get into homes with patents the sooner we can 
come to settling the problem. 

The SECRETARY. I shall take occasion in my report to acknowledge the obligations I 
am under for the co-operation of philanthropic and benevolent associations and individ- 
uals in the work which I have to carry on. I presume at this time among those inter- 
ested in the Indian problem there is but one object, and that is the ultimate civilization 
of the Indian and his adaptation to the wants of the civilization that is now surrounding 
him, and which will destroy him unless he is borne up instead of being borne down by 
it. I think a crisis has been reached in the history of this very interesting race that must 
be met by some methods different from those hitherto pursued. My own knowledge of 
the characteristics and wants of the Indian race is as yet too limited for me to feel com- 
petent to propose a general policy, which, in every particular, will meet the wants of the 
present, and at the same time be adapted to the probable exigencies of the future. There 
are, however, some landmarks in my mind to which I have arrived-, and by which, so far 
as I can control the policy of the Government will be directed. 

I am inclined to think that the process must be one of improving the Indian out of his 
present condition into the civilization of the country, rather than the immediate abroga- 
tion of the present system. I think it will be a more gradual and tentative process than I 
did when I first came into this office. The first point should be to secure to the Indians 
their reservations (either as now located, or compressed into a shorter r ^smaller space) in 
fee-simple, so that their title can have protection, not merely of the supervising depart- 
ment, but also in the courts of the country, so that there shall be impressed upon the 
entire machinery of our administration the inviolability of the Indian title, whether 
that of the tribe in common or that of the individual. At the same time I am not 
prepared to advocate the dividing up of the entire reservation among the Indians. I 
think that the abandonment of the reservation system at this time would be premature. 
It is the end to which we should move, but the first step should be, after bringing the 
Indians, with their consent, into more proportional limits (I mean proportioned to their 
numbers), to protect them from the influences which surround them the invasion of 
civilization, the destructive influence to which a stronger civilization subjects them. A 
very rigid system of exclusion of whites from their borders ought to be enforced. After 
the title to the reservation is given to the tribe, and after it has been partially subdivided 
in to separate tracts of land and each Indian has been secured in his title to his separate sec- 
tion, there ought to be a very considerable portion of the reservation still left undivided 
and undistributed. 

I will not go into my reasons for this (and I might say that these are impressions 
gathered by me in the short intervals between the visits of the triumphant and militant 
democracy), but I think that in the transition state the most dangerous of all states 
the tribal system must be adhered to. It is the normal condition of the existence of 
this race. It is the polity, and the only one known to the Indian race. To take him 
out of it is to change his social conditions, his religious and hereditary impressions, be- 



116 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

fore he is fitted for the higher civilization. I am conservative, and I have been made so 
by a costly experience. We have the same object in view, and I shall push it forward. 

As to benevolent and Christian associations, I would say that my observation is that 
the agency of the Government and the efforts of the philanthropists, while very impor- 
tant, are all subordinate to another agency. I am doubly impressed with the belief, 
and it grows stronger with each day, that the Christian religion, with its influence on 
character, on motive, and on conduct, is the instrumentality for the elevation of this 
race. The infusion of a spiritual motive is the thing that is to redeem them from deg- 
radation. I know this from my own experience in the South, my knowledge of the 
tribes in the Indian Territory. One fact in regard to them has not been properly em- 
phasized the fact that while in Georgia, in Alabama, and in Florida missionaries, 
plain, disinterested men. with exactly the spirit of the Master, worked and lived among 
them, and with self-sacrifice instilled into them the ideas out of which has grown all 
that civilization which is the admiration of all who have visited the five civilized 
tribes. 

Mr. ERASTUS BROOKS. The President stated frankly his embarrassments in dealing 
with the Indian question, and I would suggest that you listen to a memorandum of 
what we propose to suggest to the President, which has been prepared since our inter- 
view with him this morning. 

The SECRETARY. My idea is that the Indian cannot stand it to be thrown out unpro- 
tected into the civilization of this country. It would be almost as bad as a war of ex- 
termination, and until he is fitted to protect himself he should be kept under reservation 
influences, and the tribal system should not be entirely broken up. The transition state 
is the best for him at this time. 

General FISK. You also believe that it is best to hasten that transition as fast as pos- 
sible? 

The SECRETARY. Yes; to improve him out of one condition into the other. 

Rev. LYMAN ABBOT. The line of your thought indicates perhaps what has been a 
division of thought among those engaged in the Mohonk conference, all being agreed 
that it was desirable, as speedily as possible, to get the Indian out of the reservation 
and make him a citizen, subject to the local courts, but some thinking it could be done 
more speedily than others. That was the only difference of opinion. 

The SECRETARY. I will act with both sides. Those that are ready I will push on, 
and those that are not I will protect. 

Mr. ABBOT. I would like to emphasize this, that there are quite a number of Indians 
now who desire to get lands in severalty. It is safe to assume that they are ready for it; 
and we should push them forward and give lands to them, wherever Indians desire it. 
We should also open negotiations with other Indians to induce them to consent to take 
lands in severalty. 

President GATES. It is necessary to note the vast difference between Indian tribes. Some 
small ones are now ready to be citizens, and their reservations are now ready to be opened 
up. Is not this the line we should follow, by allotting the small reservations as fast as 
they are ready ? 

May we make inquiry, without intending criticism, with reference to the Mission In- 
dians in Southern California ? It is said that there is a line of encroachment steadily 
pursued on these Indians and that measures are not actively taken to protect them. 

The SECRETARY. We will try to provide against such encroachments, and are taking 
steps in that direction. 

President GATES. Is there any value in the suggestion which has been made that the 
Indians who came under United States rule by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the 
Pueblos and others, have the right to plead their position as American citizens ? 

The SECRETARY. They are not ready to do that. They are a low and illiterate class 
of men, and need a great deal of protection, and I think they are disposed rather to avoid 
the rights of citizenship than to assert them. They dread taxation, and say that their 
little estates would be swallowed up by it. In discussing the condition of the Indian I 
would say that we are not looking to the interests of the white people at all in dealing 
with him. We could solve the problem as far as we are concerned by making him a 
citizen and giving him the right of suffrage. After swallowing four million black slaves 
and digesting that pretty well we need not strain at this. We could do that; but in my 
opinion it would be most sad service to the Indian, and there would not be much of him 
left if that were done suddenly. These Pueblos are not capable of taking care of them- 
selves. I have sent word to the authorities of New Mexico not to insist on the taxes. 
I have discountenanced the idea of incorporating these people into a population that is 
ready to snatch every foot of land they can get hold of. 

Mr. SMILEY. The lands of the Mission Indians are being taken away inch by inch. 
They have a perfect right to the land, but there is no one to protect them in the courts. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 117 

There was a test case, and General Whittlesey and I encouraged a lawyer to take up the 
case, but it has gone by default. It has not been a fair trial. 

The SECRETARY. The Supreme Court has rather squinted at the idea that these Pueblo 
Indians are citizens, and the laws of New Mexico so regard them. 

President GATES. I am not one of those philanthropists who think that the Indians 
can become citizens without getting hard knocks on the way. 

The SECRETARY. I think there are Indians who can make a stand in this country who 
are capable and stalwart, but not those of whom you speak. I cannot go very much into 
this question. I am reminded of an anecdote of a young lawyer who was practicing be- 
fore the Supreme Court. After he had presented the facts and arguments in his case the 
judge began to ask him questions about it. "May it please the court," was his reply, 
"I have stated about all I know on this subject, and any further questions will simply 
elicit what I do not know. ' ' 

The following letter was addressed to the President in reply to his request: 

To the PRESIDENT: 

DEAR SIR: At the recent visit of the delegation from the Lake Mohonk conference to 
confer with you respecting Indian affairs we were very glad to hear your expressed con- 
viction that all who have given much thought to this subject agree with the conclusions 
of that conference, that the abrogation of the reservation system and the citizenship of 
the Indian are the two great ends to be steadily kept in view and immediately, vigorously, 
and continuously pursued; and we agree heartily with what you added, that the subject 
is embarrassed with many arid great practical difficulties. You were kind enough to ask 
the delegation to offer you any suggestions respecting the best methods to be employed 
in meeting these difficulties, and the first steps to be taken in pursuing the ends which 
we all have in view. Acting upon this suggestion, the delegation met at once to com- 
pare their views upon this point, and which had been the subject both of their thoughts 
and their deliberations prior to this time, and requested me to embody their suggestions 
in a letter^ you. In making these suggestions, in compliance with your request, we do 
so with a full sense of the difficulties of the situation and the necessity of evolving each 
measure in the progressive development of a just and humane Indian policy out of the 
results obtained by the measures which have preceded; yet it is proper to add that our 
suggestions are not the product of a hasty or ill-informed thinking. All of our members 
have been engaged in studying the Indian problem for years. Some of our number are 
practically familiar with the results of various past experiments, both governmental and 
individual, and have had considerable opportunities for observation of and acquaintance 
with the Indians on their reservations. And we believe that such conclusions as we 
have reached with entire unanimity, and we state no others in this letter, may be re- 
garded as embodying the conclusions of all those who have known the Indian problem 
most familiarly and studied it most thoroughly. 

The Indian question is partly administrative, partly legislative. In so far as it is ad- 
ministrative we have nothing to urge except expedition in every measure which promises 
to secure permanent tenure of land in several ty to those Indians already entitled to it, 
rapidity in issuing patents where they have been provided for by law, and the greatest 
care in securing and retaining, both as agents and superintendents of education, men 
who are fitted by nature and as far as possible by experience for the very difficult task 
intrusted to them. 

We strongly and heartily second the purpose indicated by Mr. Oberly at the Lake 
Mohonk conference to require certificates of competence of all candidates for appoint- 
ment as teachers and his plan briefly outlined for a convention of Indian school super- 
intendents to discuss the problem of Indian education. 

The legislative question presents greater theoretical difficulties. But certain things 
appear to us clear and of both immediate and pressing importance. 

Congress has already provided by treaty a law for the survey in sections and quarter- 
sections of twelve reservations. The lisfc of these reservations with reference to the laws 
is appended. We would earnestly urge the immediate appropriation by Congress of the 
necessary funds to carry out the provisions of these laws already enacted, and thus pre- 
pare the way to give land in several ty to the Indians who occupy these reservations and 
to throw open the unallotted land in them to settlement. 

We earnestly recommend the adoption by Congress of a law conferring upon the Pres- 
ident power, in his discretion, to cause surveys of other reservations and the allotment of 
land in several ty to the tribes occupying them as rapidly as their consent can be obtained, 
the purchase by the Government at a fair valuation of all the unallotted land in such 
reservations, the cash value thereof to be appropriated for the industrial and educational 
advantages of the tribe, and the opening by this method to settlement of the reserva- 
tions so allotted and purchased. A measure embodying these principles has already 
twice passed the Senate at the last session, if not on both occasions unanimously, and 



118 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

has also received the official approval of the Committee on Indian Affairs in the House; 
and we trust that it will only require the indorsement of the Executive to secure its 
final passage by the Forty-ninth Congress. 

Of course all Indian titles should be made inalienable fora term of years, all Indians 
taking land in severally should receive the full protection accorded by the law to other 
citizens, and as soon as any tribe is fairly equipped in individual homes and made com- 
petent for self-support, all annuities should cease. 

In addition to these measures, which we think might properly be urged upon the im- 
mediate attention of Congress with a reasonable expectation that they would be promptly 
and with substantial unanimity passed, we respectfully submit to your consideration a 
third, which is the result of a considerable degree of consideration and discussion on our 
part 

We are thoroughly convinced that with comparatively few exceptions the Indians can 
be prepared for land in severally and the perils and protection of citizenship as rapidly as 
the Government can well provide the necessary surveys and allotments of land'; that as a 
rule it is safe to throw upon his resources and the protection of the local community, with 
the added safeguards of the United States courts, any tribe of Indians who are ready and 
willing to accept the boon and the burdens of civilization. 

We therefore unite in recommending that Congress be asked to provide for the creation 
of an executive commission, to be appointed by the President, to open negotiations with 
the various tribes, as rapidly as in the judgment of the President is compatible with the 
safety and well-being both of the Indians and their white neighbors, in order to secure 
their consent to the abrogation of the reservation, to land in severally, to the cessation 
of annuities, and to the citizenship of the emancipated Indians. 

We believe that the time is fully ripe for the inauguration of such a policy. This is 
no sudden conclusion; we have come to it gradually, as the result of study and deliber- 
ation. And it is our profound conviction that this administration can render no greater 
service to the nation than by inaugurating, and if possible carrying through to its con- 
summation, a policy which shall solve the Indian problem by emancipating the Indian 
from his present condition of pupilage and. pauperism, and his white neighbor from their 
alternate experiences of terror and of wrath. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CLINTON B. F1SK, Chairman. 



F. 

JOURNAL OF THE FIFTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE WITH REPRESENT- 
ATIVES OF MISSIONARY BOARDS. 

The Board of Indian Commissioners held its annual meeting in the parlor of the Riggs 
House, Washington, on Thursday, January 21, 1886. There were present General Clin- 
ton B. Fisk, N. Y., chairman; General E. Whittlesey. secretary of the Board ; Albert K. 
Smiley, Lake Mohonk, New York; Dr. Merrill E. Gates, president Rutgers College, New 
Jersey; Mr. John Charlton, Nyack, N. Y. ; Mr. John K. Boies, Hudson, Mich.; Mr. W. 
F. Johnson, Chicago, 111. ; Dr. Thomas J. Morgan, Nashville, Tenn. ; William H. Lyon, 
New York; Rev. Dr. Henry Kendall, secretary Presbyterian Board Home Missions; Rev. 
Dr. F. F. Ellin wood, secretary Presbyterian Board Foreign Missions; Rev. Dr. Arthur 
Mitchell, secretary Presbyterian Board Foreign Missions; Rev. M. E. Strieby, secretary 
American Missionary Association; General J. F. B. Marshall, Unitarian Board; W. H. 
Morgan, State Normal School, Providence, R. I. ; General S. C. Armstrong, Hampton 
Institute; Rev. Dr. R. R. Shippen, Washington; Mr. Justice Strong, Washington; Judge 
A. J. Willard, Washington; Rev. Samuel W. Dike, Royalton, Vt. ; Rev. Dr. Sheldon Jack- 
son and Mrs. Jackson; Rev. Dr. B. Sunderland, Washington; Miss Laura Sunderland, 
Washington; Richard F. Bentley: Mrs. Bentley; S. F. Tappan, ex-superintendent Gov- 
ernment school, Genoa, Nebr.; T. A. Bland, Washington, D. C. ; Prof. C. C. Painter; W. 
J. Lewis; H. J. Armstrong, ex-agent for Crows; C. E. Dailey; Mrs. Joseph R. Hawley; 
Miss Kate Foote; Miss Alice C. Fletcher; Mrs. D. O Wickham; Mrs. Darwin R. James; 
Mrs. Anna J. Herbert; Mrs. Caroline H. Dall; Miss Alice C. Robertson, Muskogee, Ind. 
Ter. 

The meeting was called to order by General Fisk. Prayer was offered by the Rev. 
Dr. Ellin wood. 

General FISK. The Board of Indian Commissioners has pleasure always in greeting 
friends at these annual meetings. For the information of such friends as have not here- 
tofore visited us, I would say that it has been the custom for many years to invite rep- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 119 

resentatives of the various religious societies and friends of the Indian everywhere to meet 
with us for an interchange of views on this important question. We shall be glad to 
hear from the largest possible number, and after that a free discussion. 

The conference elected Dr. Sheldon Jackson to act as secretary. 

It was voted to appoint a committee of three to shape a programme and to present 
resolutions embodying the views of the conference. 

Professor Painter, Dr. Strieby, and Dr. Bland were nominated by the Chair and elected 
by the conference to compose this committee. 

Reports were called for from the various religious bodies as follows: 

PRESBYTEEIAN BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Dr. ELLINWOOD. Mr. Chairman, this is the first conference I have had the pleasure 
of attending, my senior colleague having represented the Board of Foreign Missions 
with the Indian conference year after year. The experience of the Board I have the 
honor to represent is not new nor recent, extending as it does over fifty years of regular 
continued work. Work during the past year has in the main been satisfactory in con- 
dition and progress. The gain in membership of our native Indian churches is about 
15 per cent. Some of the churches, especially that at the Yankton Agency, might 
serve as models to the white man. They have at this agency been very zealous in differ- 
ent departments of work, particularly in a sort of home missionary society to which 
the church contributed very largely. 

In the Seneca Mission, where the Indians are under the care more particularly of the 
State of New York, there has recently been a very encouraging revival. A missionary 
there told me he had recently baptized fourteen persons. This is more significant as 
being the fruit of -the labor of an Indian preacher not a highly educated man* but one 
possessed of an apostolic spirit and most successful in his work. 

It has been my privilege the past year to visit the reservations connected with the Board 
of Foreign Missions the Senecas, Chippewas, and Nez Perces to study the tribes, 
their conditions and relations, with a view to considering future work, as well as that 
already done. 

In considering day-schools as a meansof Indian education, I find this difficulty among 
those I visited, and which I think may be quite general: the scattered condition of the 
Indians. To carry out efficient measures for educational work, it seems necessary they 
should be massed in such degree that they may be expected to attend school. Appli- 
cation was made for the aid of $7.25 per quarter, which I believe the Government allows 
for each Indian scholar in day-school for schools among the Nez Perces. 

There were children to fill several schools, but we found that the children for each 
school were scattered over an area ten miles in extent. That was a problem difficult to 
solve. The Senecas are scattered in like manner. They do not live in villages now. 
They differ in this respect from people in foreign lands in which we are working. How 
to overcome this is a question. It seems necessary that the reserves should be contracted 
to such a limit as to bring the people nearer together so as to be reached by educational 
means without taking them from their homes and boarding them. We have found that 
the education of the children and the especial care of their parents must go on together 
to insure highest success. If the children are removed from their homes even three 
. or four miles, when they go back the education they have received is soon rendered of 
very li ttle effect. We have found among the Nez Perces that children who have learned 
English in school would rather speak Indian. In the family, where the religion is heath- 
enism, the tendency is to overcome all Christian teaching. 

We are j ust entering upon an experiment upon the Seneca reserve. We find there the 
difficulty in regard to day-schools. An industrial boarding-school is too expensive for 
our missionary board to undertake; that seems the province of the Government. There 
are 17 day-schools on the different reserves. We resolved in a conference recently held 
in Buffalo to throw helpful influences as far as possible around these schools, to seek 
the appointment of teachers in sympathy with the work, not to antagonize these State 
schools, but to help them. The experiment upon which we propose to enter is to send 
there two rather mature Christian women who shall live together, shall have a horse 
and carriage and go about the reserve, taking with them an Indian woman educated at 
the orphan school, going from house to house, something in the manner of what we call 
"Zenana work," going into the homes, inculcating not only religious teaching but ideas 
of tidiness, of house decoration even, teaching them to bake bread, to keep a garden, 
&c. ; teaching the children; reaching the men if possible. On that reservation it is found 
that where children have been educated in good Christian schools they have a lack of 
common sense to adapt themselves to every-day life. They have an abundance of good 
land, but instead of staying on it and cultivating it for a living they go away and pick 



120 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

berries for the whites for two cents a quart, getting more or less whisky, keeping up 
rambling, uncertain modes of life. We want to teach these men to plant their own ber- 
ries and instead of getting two cents a quart get all the berries' are worth. 

Considering the scattered condition of the people, I think something of this kind is 
better than taking them away from their homes, making parasites of them, instead of 
that taking the people where they live, getting hold of the old Indians. Encourage the 
children, give them a dinner, if necessary, as an incentive, but reach them at their 
homes. I will not take more time, but yield to my colleague. 

Dr. MITCHELL. Having taken from the hand of our senior secretary, Dr. Lowrie, the 
Dakota field, I have visited that field, but Dr. Ellinwood has spoken fully of the work. 
My visit has only deepened my sense of the practicability of the work. A considerable 
number have been added to the churches at that Mission. 

Expenditures on account of Missions to American Indians. 

Chippewa Mission $3, 128 50 

CreekMission 4,426 21 

Choctaw Mission _..___. 1,477 64 

Seminole Mission 4,602 74 

Seneca Mission 2,827 84 

Dakota Mission 6,691 91 

Nez Perec's Mission 3,939 55 

Omahas Mission 2,834 30 

Winnebago Mission 768 00 

Iowa and Sac Mission 653 50 

Sac and Fox Mission. . ._ 87436- 



Total - 32,224 55 



PRESBYTEKIAN BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 

Dr. KENDALL. I propose to give you a few dry statistics first : 

Indian work of the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 

of America. 



Tribes. 


Mission- 
aries. 


Scholars. 


Church 
members. 


Amount 
expended. 


Cherokees . .. .... 


12 


200 


235 


$7,400 00 


Creeks 


11 


91 


57 


6 400 00 


Choctaws .. . 


10 


55 


86 


5,050 00 




1 






1 200 00 












Total Indian Territory 


34 


346 


378 


20, 050 00 


Pueblos 


25 


380 


10 


28,505 75 




2 


30 




1,500 00 




2 


5 




2 200 00 




3 




393 


1,700 00 


Alaskans 


20 


360 


125 


21,613 44 


Dakotas 


14 


65 


365 


5, 353 44 














100 


1,186 


1, 271 


*80, 922 63 



*About $20,000 of this amount received from the Government. 

SUMMARY. 

Number of tribes in which we have missions 28 

Number of organized churches 26- 

Number of schools 24 

All the work of the past year has shown very fair progress. Our Board has had a very 
heavy debt carried over from last year, so we have had to take much of our receipts to 
pay that off. I want to beg the President to let Miss Robertson speak on the work among 
the Creeks. In our work among the Cherokees we are pushing on, establishing schools 
gradually. Also going on with work among the Choctaws. Here as elsewhere among 
the five tribes there is a mixed population, whites, Indians, and negroes, so you cannot 
tell which are white, red, or black. 

There have been several interesting revivals of religion. One church was organized 



REPORT* OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 121 

with fifty-seven members^ only one of whom would on sight be supposed to be Indian, 
while all claimed rights as Indians. 

In Alaska (I do not mean to anticipate Dr. Sheldon Jackson) we have gone on with 
work under serious difficulties, which we trust have passed away. 

I am sorry and ashamed to say we have some scattered churches of which we do not 
know much and for which we have not done so much as we ought. We have two mis- 
sion churches in Michigan , from which we have most meager reports. We have not looked 
after them as we ought. We have a church among the Stockbridges in Wisconsin. Their 
pastor, a noble man, died and we have not been able to supply his place. 

Among the Puyallup, Nisqually, and Chehalis Indians successful work has been carr 
ried on. Perhaps the largest Indian church we have is one out there of two hundred 
members. 

We have to inform you that the Government has given us notice that the arrangement 
in regard to the Albuquerque school will terminate on the first of July, concerning 
which, however we may regret it, we have nothing to say. They own the buildings and 
the land. It is our own fault. We could have had the land instead of the Government, 
but we were so poor we were afraid to take it. We ought to have put up the buildings 
ourselves, but we did not, and now, after spending thousands of dollars, we are turned 
out. They have their own views to carry out. The Department has declared the policy 
to be to run the schools hereafter themselves. At the same time they say they will not 
interfere with us; that is, where we have a school the Government will not establish one. 
They will not prevent any one else, Congregationalists, Baptists, Catholics, or any other 
denomination from beginning a school. I think that so far as our sc-hools reach the In- 
dian children they will allow us the $7.5^ per quarter. I think we have learned a lesson 
of going forward. 

Dr. STRIEBY. Did you spend money on buildings ? 

Dr. KENDALL. We have spent a good deal; for this we shall present a claim; don't 
know whether we will get it; probably we shall get something, but we shall not get 
back the money spent. I think we shall keep up schools among four Pueblos, paying 
teachers ourselves. You, all understand how difficult our work has been there the 
communities being generally Catholic and under the influence of the priests. We pur- 
pose sending out only good teachers, such as would be acceptable in your schools here, 
and they make their own way there. They are not persons we want if they are notable 
to draw children by their personal influence. In spite of the Catholic priests and, what 
is a great deal worse, the Mormon priests, we have made our way because the people 
thought we spoke better English. In New Mexico the people, seeing railroads coming, 
say, "My boy has got to learn English and to be able to do business. The white peo- 
ple are coming here; my boy must be ready." They have an ide that our teachers 
speak better English than the French and Italian priests, who speak English something 
as we do French and Italian. 

I don't know a more hopeful field on the face of the earth than the Indian Territory. 
Such readiness to learn, such demand, such constant effort, is not seen elsewhere. There 
is the mixed population the negroes, once slaves of the Indians, now free and made 
citizens; the white men who have gone in, renters, who will stay and whose children 
will intermarry with the. Indians. There cannot be too earnest effort for the Indian 
Territory. You know that Territory is capable of sustaining a great population. We 
must do much for a people, a country, with such capabilities, and where there seems 
such a wonderful readiness on the part of the people to learn. Let me tell you of an old 
woman who had known the old missionaries, and who, coming many miles, leading her 
grandchild, to put him into school, but who went away sorrowful on finding that the 
old missionaries were dead. 

General FISK. We shall be glad to hear from Dr. Jackson, who has been spending 
some time in a cold climate and whom we are glad to see out of jail. 

Dr. JACKSOX. The coldest point registered upon the thermometer last year at Sitka 
was 14 above zero. 

The work in Alaska has progressed in spite of the great difficulties in certain direc- 
tions. Sometimes it is well for success in commencing to get the bottom facts. As you 
all know, Alaska has now a civil government established. 

The school land of Alaska is mainly for native children. During the past year six or 
seven schools have been carried on from that fund, with a regular monthly attendance of 
about seven hundred. The Government has taken some of the mission schools, keeping 
the same teachers. In the northern sections, on account of the difficulty of receiving re- 
ports and paying salaries, the schools have been taken under contract. The Episcopal 
Church has taken a contract for a school at Fort Yukon, within the Arctic Circle. The 
mail for these people left Manitoba the first of December by dog-sledges, which, travel- 
ing every day will reach them in June. 



122 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The Moravian Church of Bethlehem have taken a contract from the Government for 
one of these extreme northern schools, and have sent out three men and two women to 
establish it. In August last one of these missionaries was accidentally drowned, the 
first martyr to the mission cause in Alaska. 

The Presbyterian board have entered into contract for another of these far away 
schools. The Government in making these contracts requires first-class public 
schools and first-class teachers, only such as would be accepted in our schools here. 

The civil government in Alaska at the beginning set themselves against the school 
work ; one of them said in public that they would drive the teachers from the country. 
They tried, in every way tried, to raise a race prejudice between the Russians and the 
natives, tried to make the people believe that the land occupied by the schools at 
Sitka was needed for the town. 

These men have all been removed, and the new appointees have started in well. 
The governor has told the Indians they must send their children to school, and he is 
determined they shall send them. He made it his first duty to investigate the charges 
against the missionaries and found there was no case against them. 

Miss ROBERTSON. I am glad after the dark picture you have had from Dr. Jackson 
to bring you a brighter one from the Indian Territory. Some of you will remember my 
being here three years ago trying to get an appropriation from the Government to 
build a boarding school among the Creek full-bloods, and how I failed in that, but 
was encouraged to go to the benevolent people of the country for aid. This was done, 
the school was built, and has been in operation nearly a year. This school is upon 
the cottage plan ; instead of one large building with the children herded in dormitories, 
they are placed in homes under the care of a house mother. Each of these homes is 
complete in itself, so that the children are not taught housekeeping theoretically but 
practically. A great interest was taken in the school by different societies and mis- 
sion bauds in the East. They furnished many of the rooms, young girls making the 
bedding, sending pictures from their own rooms, embroidering pin-cushions and tidies, 
adding the finishing touches that made the rooms, with their nice furniture, so bright, 
and pretty that I dreaded to think of the result of putting those untaught children 
into them. I must confess to a happy disappointment, for I never saw rooms kept 
in such neat, dainty order as these were. At the end of the first term not a scratch 
marred the furniture, not one of the spoons or forks was missing. It was simply 
marvellous, the progress made by these children ; no white children could have 
learned more rapidly. In the first three months quite a number learned to write 
very neatly. 

This school is supported by the Creek Nation, under a contract with the Presby- 
terian Board of Home Missions. The Creeks from their annual interest money pay 
$70 per scholar, the board managing the school and paying the teachers, and the 
parents of the children clothing them, except in case of very destitute orphans, where 
the board furnishes clothing. In this as in the other schools among the Creeks the 
effort is toward self-reliance, and not to encourage habits of dependence. 

I think the tendency in considering the Indians is to look at them too much in the 
abstract, to think of them like men upon a chess-board by which some problem is to 
be worked out. We must remember that they are flesh and blood like ourselves ; we 
must love them. In working for them we must not look down upon them from the 
height of conscious superiority, but go to thpm as our brothers. 

We must be ready to put ourselves in their places, and question what treatment we 
would like to receive. It often hurts me to hear the Indians spoken of as though they 
were dumb, inanimate objects without feelings to be considered. Love alone can 
solve the problem. 

FROM THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, FIRST MONTH 21, 1886. 

.. Our work amongst the Indians during the past year has been confined nearly ex- 
clusively to those composing the Santee, Flaudreau, and Ponca Agency. 

During the past eight years these Indians have been under the control of Agent 
Lightner, and. they have made rapid progress towards civilization and enlightenment. 

Since our last report the Santees have all had their lands allotted to them in sev- 
eralty, and a large proportion of them have already applied for, and some few have 
received, patents for the same. 

Under treaty stipulations and an additional law of Congress on the subject, each 
head of a family of this tribe received 1GO acres of land and also each other Indian, 
except married women, received 80 acres. 

Thus the Santees have now allotted to them 69,100 acres of land, and the remainder 
of their reservation, about 44,770 acres, has been restored to the public domain and is 
subject to entry and settlement by white persons, so that in the language of Agent 
Lightner " we now have white settlers scattered throughout our agency, putting up 
buildings, breaking land, and starting improvements generally, with a view to open- 
ing up farms. I think as a rule the surplus land has been taken by a good class of 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 123 

people; that their presence and example among the San tees will be of great and last- 
ing benefit for general progress. 

The crops at the Santee Agency last year were good. The agent reports their having 
raised about 14,156 bushels of wheat, '20,492 bushels of oats, 2,815 bushels of flaxseed, 
47,627 bushels of corn, and 6,000 bushels of potatoes, sufficient for the tribe to subsist 
upon and to spare. 

As a result of these Indians being self-supporting we have not felt called upon to 
spend much money in the Indian work this year. 

We furnished a little towards making the aged and infirm, as well as the school 
children, more comfortable, and also sent some clothing to a tribe in Nevada. 

The Flaudreau and Ponca hands of Indians who are attached to the Santee Agency 
are doing well, and we think will soon be able to take care of themselves. 

On hehalf of the society : 

CYRUS BLACKBURN. 
RICHARD T. BENTLEY. 

General'FfsK. I am glad to introduce now Dr. Strieby of the Congregational Board, 
that is doing such grand work among the Santees. 

Dr. STRIEBY. We all know the great work being done by the Presbyterians, but I 
don't think I have ever been so impressed by the greatness and goodness of it as now. 
I feel like ottering thanksgiving to God for the work that church is doing among the 
Indians. 

Oar most northern work is at Fort Berthold, where we have a missionary and two 
teachers and a day school. The Indians are so scattered th?it we have determined to 
establish a boarding school. At Fort Sully and Peoria Bottom, where we have a 
school and church, we hope to enlarge the work by a building accommodating teach- 
ers and pupils in a boarding school, there being no room left by the change of popu- 
lation for a day school. 

Around the outlying stations, Cheyenne River, Rosebud, Pine Ridge, &c., we are 
going forward as our means will permit. 

At Santee Agency a grand work is being done on the foundations laid by the Riggs 
and Williamsons. Mr. Riggs is doing a good work by the inheritance coming down 
from the father. We are soon to have the lack of facilities supplied by a new build- 
ing. We have tried the cottage plan, and while we realize its advantages the expense 
is somewhat greater, and we have thought best to enlarge by putting up a building 
to bring more together. 

The work at Santee is very prosperous. On the Pacific coast we have tb<e son of 
the old pioneer nussiouary, whose father, Mr. Eells, still living, is a venerable and no- 
ble specimen of the old workers, and here too a good work is being done. 

At Santa FC", N. Mex., we have recently started a new work, a. department for In- 
dian children in connection with the school already established there. We have an 
order from the Government lor assistance for maintaining fifty Indian children. There 
has been there some little embarrassment owing to a lack of funds, but we have now 
the assurance that means are provided. The part of our association is to provide 
teachers, and those we have sent are reported to be doing excellent work. 

THE UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION. 

General MARSHALL. I have been requested to report for our association. We have, 
I am sorry to say, no work at present. We have heretofore as an association met great 
difficulties on attempting work among the Utes, but we are hoping to renew our work 
either there or elsewhere. I have received assurance from the Department that they 
will co-operate in the way of making allowances for schools, but they want us to erect 
buildings. We don't like to build among the Utes; they are moved around so much 
that it is too uncertain to build there. We hope to report some work in the future. 

Dr. SHIPPEN. General Marshall, whom many of you know as having been an efficient ' 
assistant to General Armstrong at Hampton, has now been appointed by the associa- 
tion as their special agent to represent the Indian work, and we hope now to go for- 
ward in a better work in the years to come. 

General MARSHALL. In justice to the Unitarian Church I should say that while our 
association has done nothing, private individuals have not been idle and have given 
largely to Indian work. 

General FISK. Dr. Reid could not find it convenient to come, and, as you reqnest, I 
can only say briefly, of the work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, that in the econ- 
omy of that church all the Indian work is embraced within some of its conferences. 
We have to report a like experience with the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions. 
Our chief school has been taken by Government, it having been thought best by the 
new superintendent \ o transfer it entirely to the Government. It is thought that that 
will be the policy of the new administration, to keep all the work in its own hands. 

Dr. MORGAN (for the Methodist Episcopal Church South). In the multiplicity of 



124 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

my duties I have been able to give very little attention to this particular work. We 
hive preachers among the Indians in North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and Florida. 
We send preachers from year to year with a special view of caring for the Indians, 
In the Indian Territory we have an Indian conference, in which we have about five 
thousand Indian communicants and forty native preachers. 

Miss Robertson spoke of excellent work no\v being done by Dr. Morgan's society in 
the Indian Territory, both in church and school matters. 

General FISK (being requested to speak further in Dr. Reid's absence). Our church 
undertakes to do a little something everywhere. Our chief work that we are especially 
proud of is that at Yakima by Father Wilbur, who was the best Indian agent we ever 
knew anything about. Under his faithful labors six full-blood Yakimas have become 
successful preachers of the Gospel. It is a sad thing that this agency, with its mag- 
nificent outlook, has been turned over to the hands of a Catholic agent, while not far 
away a Catholic agency has had a Methodist assigned to them. We hope, however, 
to secure a change. At Fort Peck, as you are aware, our church has been doing good 
work. At several points in California we are carrying on work. 

Mr. SMILEY. As there is no one here toreportfor the Orthodox Friends, I would like 
to say that our society has been doing more perhaps this year than ever before. 

I have recently visited at Wabasb, Ind., a large school where they have sixty In- 
dian pupils. They have a very large farm of excellent land, cultivated by the boys, 
who raise immense crops. I saw these Indian boys clearing a portion of land and 
they were doing it in a most excellent manner. We have another similar school in 
Iowa. 

Three hundred members of the Society of Friends are Indians. They hold their 
own meetings. One man who figured largely in the Modoc war in the lava beds, 
Steamboat Frank, is now a Quaker preacher. He is now at school at Vassalboro'. Me., 
where I saw him last summer. He has been a missionary in Oregon, and is now re- 
ceiving training that he may go back and do better work. He has changed his name 
to Frank Modoc. He preaches among the white people where he is with accep- 
tance. 

I do not know just the amount of money raised by our society the past year, but it 
is somewhere between fifty and one hundred thousand dollars. We have ten differ- 
ent annual meetings, each entirely distinct, and I have not the statistics. 

Dr. MORGAN. Is the industrial feature made prominent in the education of girls at 
the Wabash school? 

Mr. SMILEY. Yes; I saw the girls at work baking bread, sevving r sweeping floors, 
&c. 

President GATES. It occurs to me to say a word as to the sympathy of Secretary 
Lamar, who is, I understand, a member of the church Dr. Morgan represents. You re- 
member his earnest words of appreciation of the importance of these matters. I want 
to call attention to the remarks of President Cleveland on that same day, because 
while this period of transition is going on we are all anxious. You remember he said 
that any one who, in attempting to solve this intricate problem, should leave out 
the influence, I will say the supreme influence, of Christian effort, makes a fatal mis- 
take. 

Professor PAINTER. Allow me lo supplement the remarks made about the work 
among the Modocs. I visited Steamboat Frank at his own home. I wish I could 
place before you pictures showing the contrast between Steamboat Frank's barn built 
by himself and one built by the Government official sent out to teach the Indians how 
to build barns. Frank's was a good New England barn, with everything complete, 
places for grain, for housing agricultural implements, &c., while the other was a 
tumble-down frontiersman's stable, partly covered with straw, partly not covered at 
all. I had the pleasure of meeting the Modocs and speaking to them. * They all seemed 
to understand without an interpreter. In the past the mortality among them has 
been fearful, but I think they have reached the bottom, and their present outlook is 
most hopeful. They are scattered outon their farms. They would have their stables 
to-day if it were not for the mistake, the blunder, by which after a sa\v-inill was 
built, and the prairie covered with logs the Indians had hauled to have sawed into 
lumber, the whole thing was stopped because the appropriation committee, in order 
to be economical, refused to appropriate pay for a man to run the mill. 

I saw nothing so encouraging in the Indian Territory as the progress among these 
people. It was natural development and growth, the power of their manhood assert- 
ing itself. 

General Fisk spoke of an illustration of the power of prayer; that while a good 
Quaker woman in the Indian Territory was praying that she might be allowed to do 
something for the Modocs, they were brought to the reservation where she was labor- 
ing. 

Dr. SMILEY. These Modocs were great fighters; the Quakers don't fight, so the 
Modocs were put onto them, and they were found a most hopeful people. These In- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 125 

dians organized a temperance society among themselves. The Maine law is not stronger 
in the rural districts of Maine than that they have. 

General ARMSTRONG. I wish Captain Pratt was here to speak for Indian school, 
work in the East. Some of us had a very unpleasant fear at Mohonk that Captain 
Pratt might be ordered away from the work at Carlisle, but this fear seems no longer 
in the air. It would not do to lose a leader like Captain Pratt. He has done more to 
civilize the Indians than any ten men in regular army work. At Carlisle he is con- 
stantly enlarging work, adding to agricultural facilities, &c. He has done much by 
aid from private individuals. While his is a purely Government school, this outside 
help is of great value because of the interest it awakens. The more people give to 
these schools the more real interest they will take in them. 

At Hampton we have fifteen or twenty more Indians than last year. The work 
goes on satisfactorily ; everything is hopeful. The annoyance we had about appro- 
priations last year I think is over. The health question troubles us very littlathis 
year. We had a large death rate among the Dakota Indians from one or two agen- 
ices, from which Captain Pratt had refused to take pupils because of unsatisfactory 
health. 

It is useless to speak of the progress being made. We are perfectly satisfied with 
the result. The general idea is that students returning to the reservations rush into 
a perfect maelstrom of barbarism. Among all Indians there is a progressive element. 
It is in those who return, and there are those who recognize this and help them. It 
is not a large element, but it counts for something. 

Last summer I took the responsibility of sending out two of our teachers to look 
up and report upon returned students. " With the exception of $75, furnished by the 
Indian Rights Association, the expense was borne by the ladies. They wrote letters 
for Eastern papers. Miss Helen Ludlow went out first, going to the agencies on the 
Upper Missouri, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, &c. Her letters were published in the Hart- 
ford Courant and in some Boston and New York papers ; some of you may have seen 
them. Her point was to find out what had become of each Indian student. She took 
them seriatim ; visited each one personally. Miss Elaine Goodale, a very bright and 
talented young writer, one who will probably be the successor of Helen Hunt Jackson 
in writing in defense of the Indians, went out later; she, too, wrote for papers, the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean and others. The two ladies received nothing beyond their ex- 
penses, and the idea of their going was not to glorify Hampton school, but to get at 
the facts in the case. Their reports have been printed in a pamphlet some of you 
may have seen. 

Two-thirds of the returned students are doing fairly well to very well. One-third 
have relapsed, wear the blanket and go to dances. I don't know that Indian dances 
are any worse than civilized dances. The conditions at an Indian agency are ten 
times as difficult as under civilization. We lose 10 per cent, of the negro students we 
send out. It is wonderful that the loss of Indian students is no more than 33 per 
cent. To an Indian going back to the conditions existing at the agencies the strug- 
gle is a fearful one. /Miss Ludlow put into her letters a cry for something for them to 
do. This most important fact has been established : that the Indians who have a 
chance turn to some account the training they have received. To the Indians the 
agent is their father, they must depend upon him for employment, and so we watch 
with anxiety changes in the Indian agents. 

The money was subscribed by Christ Church, New Orleans, to build a cottage for 
a married couple ; other cottages have been built, and we have five families who live 
in these cottages, who are learning to swim by going into the water, learning how 
to keep a house by actually living in one. Philip Stabler with his wife, after living 
in one of the Hampton cottages, went home and built his house just like it. 

Dr. SUNDERLAND. I am rather a new hand in this business, not new in the feeling 
I have, not new in sympathy which I have for every honest worker, man or woman, 
whose object is to serve God aud promote the temporal and spiritual welfare of the 
aborigines of our country. On former occasions I have been invited to be present 
at this conference, but have not before been able to attend. My being put forward 
in this Indian organization has been almost involuntary. I have been, as it were, 
toled along. There are other gentlemen present who can explain this new organiza- 
tion (The Indian Defense) better than I. We are to have a public meeting to-mor- 
row evening, and shall be glad to have as many of you present as possible. I occupy the 
position in this organization that I do solely *iu the hope of promoting the welfare of 
the Indian tribes. I do not wish to enter into anything like a personal controversy, 
only to help the general cause. There will be, there must be, different opinions in 
regard to any great question. We must agree together to differ in a friendly spirit. 
I like this idea of the conference, of coming together, comparing notes, and getting 
intelligence from each other. 

Judge WILLARD. I did not come to speak. I think it would be premature to under- 
take to develop at this time the object of the Indian Defense Association. I know 
nothing about the Indian question as an expert, and I find myself in the midst of ex- 



126 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

perts in Indian character from actual contact in the field. We want a knowledge of 
what the Government can do and cannot do in order to find a basis for work. There 
are great difficulties in every department of work ; the Government cannot administer 
moral influences. 

Our children are placed under the control of guardians, the system works well; 
place them under political guardians, and the principal feature of the system would 
be corruption. The release of the Indian from political control is the first great ne- 
cessity. We are trying to conceive of some way in which the political power may be 
taken off, by which the Indian may be released from political bondage. There are 
differences of opinion as to what shall be done ; one difference is as to whether we shall 
immediately cast upon the Indian responsibilities he might not be able to maintain. 
For my own part I think that time should be given him to advance by gradual steps, 
through a gradual transition, looking to the citizenship of the Indian and his becom- 
ing a component element, but not attempting by act of Congress to transform him. 

Mrs. DALL. May I ask whether the Government has been interceded with in behalf 
of the agents who have been removed where they were doing good work ? 

General FISK, It is not possible to do very much in such matters, though at times 
our influence has been such as to result in good ; the political gentlemen are too much 
for us. They come early and stay late. The trouble has been we have not been ad- 
vised about changes until they are actually made. 

We have been very kindly received by the Executive and the Indian Department. 
I believe the Executive is sincere in a determination to do what is right. 

Mr. MORGAN, of the Indian Rights Association of Providence. The great object of 
our association is to bring the matter before the people. I regard myself as being for- 
tunate in being here to learn so many facts. 

During the war I had between five and six thousand colored soldiers under me. I 
found I had to teach them, and I have watched the progress of the negro from that 
time with great interest. I think there can be no doubt as to the practicability of 
the elevation of the Indian. We must confess to the fact that we do not recognize 
the difficulties in the work of lifting up a people. When I realize the number of po- 
licemen it takes to keep in order the old city of Roger Williams, I think we should 
not expect too rapid progress of the Indian. If we ourselves, after all these centuries, 
have advanced no further, surely we should be patient with the Indian. 

Two thoughts have impressed themselves upon me this morning ; the first that it is 
important to take the boys and girls young enough and hold them long enough so that 
they may become thoroughly grounded in civilization. I don't know that Dr. Ellin- 
wood meant the harsh word, parasite, that he used in regard to children thus taken 
from home. I believe one of the great ways of accomplishing the elevation of the 
Indian is to take the boys and girls young enough and hold them long enough so that 
they shall be able to care for themselves. 

If I want to educate my boy to take a place in modern life, I do not send him to 
school for only six months or three years; I take twenty years, give him every advan- 
tage in my power, and then am thankful if he succeeds and can stand. I don't be- 
lieve we have understood what it is to educate an Indian boy or girl. For ten years 
my boy of thirteen has been at work, and I expect him to continue ten years more. 
We talk about educating Indian boys and girls by keeping them in day school a little 
while ! We must understand that the work to be done for the Indian is j ust as great, 
just as difficult, as to educate our own boys and girls. 

The other thought is this : I don't know anything better that has been said this 
morning than Miss Robertson's plea to treat the Indian like a human being. To sub- 
mit a man to military discipline is to crush the manhood out of him. When I treat 
students as men they respond. These Indian boys and girls are made of the same 
stuff precisely as our sons and daughters, and are capable of development along the 
same lines. 

I wish sometimes that we could blot out the word Indian ; that we could make these 
people a part of ourselves ; could put them under the same conditions. I don't think 
we shall reach the desired point until we take hold of the work for Indian children 
like the work for our own. So soon as we realize this there will be real progress. 

Miss FLETCHER. The Womans' National Indian Association have continued work 
during the year. I wish Mrs. Qninton or Mrs. Dickinson were hereto speak concern- 
ing the work of the association. During the year we have increased the number of 
societies, and hope before another year to cover the entire Union. We have distrib- 
uted a large number of leaflets. A year ago we began a new work of sending out 
missionaries to establish work and then turn it over to the care of regular organiza- 
tions or religious bodies. Two missions have been thus organized and turned over 
the past year. 

. The association has taken up home-building. We have held large meetings in the 
different auxiliaries and a successful annual meeting. The women of the country 
have been aiding chiefly in urging forward public opinion, upon which we must de- 
pend very largely for success. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 127 

Dr. BLAND. I am not a delegate from the Indian Defense Association, but I might 
say briefly that information from all over the country is encouraging not altogether, 
but as a whole. I think progress is being made. I hope the time is not far distant 
when the necessity for the publication of such a paper as my journal may cease to 
exist ; that the time is near when we shall understand the Indian as a man who must 
be treated humanely, and when the Indian shall cease to be an Indian and adopt civil- 
ized life. I know some good friends of the Indian regard me as too conservative be- 
cause I hold back from going too fast. I look forward to ultimate success. Public 
opinion is ripening to the point that it must stand by the treaties with the Indians; 
that they must not be forced, but led to the adoption of a higher civilization by its 
going to them, getting into them, and lifting them up. I don't think an Indian can 
be made a white man by act of Congress, but he may be lifted up to an equal plane. 
Indians write me from all over the country that the Indians 'are improving. The 
prospect everywhere is encouraging. 

Professor PAINTER. I am sent here by the Indian Rights Association to represent it 
before the Departments, not before fhis meeting. You know our method of work is 
chiefly visiting the reservations, collecting facts, urging them upon the Department, 
visiting Congress ; failing in this, to appeal to the public press. While there has been 
very marked evidence as to the value of such an orgauization, I will not go into a 
statement of that now. As the representative of the association I took an extended 
trip through the Indian Territory, Arizona, and California, looking into certain ques- 
tions. I have begn struck with the reports as to the difficulty of maintaining Indian 
day-schools on the reserves where Indians have begun to cultivate the land. As soon 
as an Indian gets away from the agency where he sits down and takes the food doled 
out to him, establishes himself as a man and raises his own supplies, then he is iso- 
lated. That difficulty we must meet. He is in the line of progress when he goes out 
to till the land, and we must meet the difficulty, remove the obstacle. Do not talk 
about the rights of the Indian as an Indian, but as a man that is the point. I am 
glad the Indians are scattered out so that it is difficult to maintain day-schools among 
them. It shows progress on their part. We must enlarge our benefactions and over- 
come this difficulty. I found this trouble among the Pai-Utes Indians scattered along 
the railroad from Truckee to Winnemucca, in Nevada. There is a large number of the 
Indians not on a reservation and who don't want to go on one. They say, " We ask 
nothing, want nothing ; we are earning wages, taking care of ourselves." The people 
there want them to stay ; they want the help of the women in their households, to 
cook, to wash, &c., but their children are not in school ; they are Indians and cannot 
come into the public schools. There they are, scattered along there. Shall they be 
sent back to the horrors of the reservation system or shall we insist that they have 
some rights ; that they may go to the public schools ? 

General WHITTLESEY. Why is .it any more difficult to have these Indian children 
attend the schools than others? 

It is a question of State law. It would be advisable for the Government to co-oper- 
ate with the State of Nevada in providing for the education of these Indian chil- 
dren. The superintendent of schools for the State of Nevada visited the school at Pyr- 
amid Lake. I saw articles he wrote while there. He began with the idea that it 
was a question whether the Indian was susceptible of education. Later he gave the 
result of his observations in the school, which led him to advocate that the State of 
Nevada make arrangements with the General Government. He sent a proposition to 
the Government to that effect. We should bring our influence to bear in the direc- 
tion of co-operation. I found the same condition among the scattered Digger Indians 
in California. A number of them have taken lands under the homestead law, and 
there is quite a number of Indian citizens of the State of California, and who have 
been so acknowledged. When you come to the Mission Indians of California, their 
condition is very pitiful indeed. Helen Hunt Jackson told something of it in her 
story of Ramona and in reports. I went to see the President and said that in my 
opinion it was a question for the courts. If they have any rigtit to lands the courts 
should say so. If these rights are established the Indians are able to take care of 
themselves. If they have no rights let that be decided by the courts. I went to see 
the Attorney-General, but he could give no opinion without data upon which to base 
it. The Indian Bureau are now preparing the case. 

I visited the Presbyterian school at Anaheim, Cal. They have there a good build- 
ing and good workers, but few scholars, as the Indians are all Catholics, 

On the \Ahole, just in proportion as they have any chance, there is progress among 
the Indians. 

Miss FLETCHER. I think it a pity to say too much about any one Indian tribe. The 
more advanced an Indian people become the more complex their life. 

The Oniahas, among whom I went for purely scientific work, are now holding their 
lands in severalty. They are not now living where they had lived for one hundred 
and fifty years. The Omahas have always cultivated the soil; they belong to the 
nomadic class and not strictly to the village class, like the Pueblos, but went out on 



128 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

summer hunts. Like all tribes in the buffalo country, they were strictly governed. 
In the early part of the century they had a remarkable chief, Big Elk, a man quite 
noticeable in his statesmanlike mind, and who, looking into the untried future, saw 
the advantages of civilization and tried to turn his people toward a contemplation of 
our ways of living. 

The chief, Black Bird, who was supposed to have been buried on the heights look- 
ing toward the Missouri River, and from whom they received their name of the Black- 
bird Hills, was not really so influential a man among the Indians. He was a great friend 
to the traders in Spanish times, aiding them in securing large prices for their wares. 
The giving of this chief's name to these hills was not authorized by the Indians, but 
worked into history by the white traders. I say this to identify the people in your 
minds. The Omahas are closely related to the Poncas. They were originally one tribe, 
probably up to one hundred and fifty years ago. 

The Poncas, in 1677-78, were taken forcibly from their homes on theNiobrara River 
to the Indian Territory. While en route they were visited by their friends, the Omahas, 
who found them in sore distress at being torn from what they considered their home. 
The Omahas made their first definite, distinct treaty in 1H55, in which was a clause 
recognizing lands in severalty, and when they made their second treaty in 1866, sell- 
ing a portion of their land for the Wiunebagoes, they made strong insistaoce on 
having this incorporated as one section of the treaty. Allotments had been made by 
the agent and signed by Commissioner Parker. These they supposed were titles for 
their land, but after seeing the trouble of the Poncas they determined to investigate 
their title. They went to a lawyer and found that as titles their allotments were not 
worth the paper they were written on. They were in this sore distress when I "first 
visited them. The people had largely scattered out upon their farms. They had set 
aside their chiefs, and had also inaugurated sundry reforms looking toward the inter- 
ests of the people. They know from experience that when laud was held by the tribe it 
was easily managed by controlling a few chiefs, and the chiefs could be easily persuaded. 
Their one thought now was how to obtain the patent to which they thought they 
were entitled ; that was the one shadow over every home. I found in my study of this 
people how attached they were to their homes. I knew nothing from a practical 
standpoint. They were to me simply an interesting people to be studied. I was just 
an unprejudiced scholar when I began to hunt up facts to look up their treaties. It 
was the most confounding experience I ever went through. I had never imagined 
such inconsistencies as I found in this my first public lesson. I gathered up a number 
of statistics, making my basis of action the idea that they had homesteaded their 
lands. 1 sent them on to Washington thought that would be enough. The Omahas 
would come from all over the reserve to ask about their patents, and so I crossed the 
country and came to Washington, General Whittlesey will remember, for my first in- 
terview was with him. At last, in August, 188*2, the President signed a bill giving 
the Omahas lauds in severalty. In the mean time I had brought on two large parties 
of children to be placed in school. I was asked by the Secretary of the Interior to 
undertake the work of allotment. I began it in 1883, 160 acres being allowed to each 
head of a family, 80 to every person over eighteen and to every orphan, and 40 to 
every minor. It was clear to niy mind that the people should move out when they 
came to take permanent locations. 

The mission, built in 1858, was at that time on the Missouri River near a steamboat 
lauding, but the river in its change had swept the landing down to the Gulf of Mexico. 
In order to get the Indians to scatter out, I took my tent, my Indian matron, and 
clerk, and went all over the 76,000 acres of the reservation. I induced a large number 
of them to take lands in the western part. It was a great deal better for them to be 
near the railroad and a market than to have to haul their produce 20 or 30 miles. 
When I left the reservation something like 800 acres had already been broken there, 
and a town has since grown. The Indians found it an advantage to be nearer a white 
neighborhood. 

These people are entirely self-supporting, though they are now on their last install- 
ment of $10,000, distributed per capita. There is no place where there is more of 
politics than on an Indian reservation, and the Omahas are no exception. 

Many families are cultivating '25 to 100 acres, and as there is seldom more than one 
man to do this it shows great individual effort. 

The prospect is not, however, all bright. It is not all clear sailing; they have a 
new agent, who is inexperienced; there are many changes. 

Employe's have been dispensed with farmers, blacksmiths, &c. because the In- 
dians made the argument that only a few of them were benefited by them, most of 
them paying for repairs, &c., themselves. 

I was much surprised to hear an adverse report had been made by an inspector. I 
immediately wrote to the councilmen and have deposited their replies with the In- 
dian Office, controverting the reports received by the inspector from interested par- 
ties that there was stock turned over to the Indians ; that they had a feast and ate it 
all up. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 129 

There were eighteen or nineteen head of cattle ; these were distributed. They turned 
over three cows to the school superintendent ; he turned them back ; said they were 
not worth keeping,aud ad vised \hern to kill them; the animals were, therefore, slaugh- 
tered, and the meat divided around. 

The fact about the Omahas is they need to learn self-confidence. They have not as 
yet realized the value of education. They are, for instance, willing to keep their chil- 
dren in the fields in September, but I am advised the schools are full this winter. 
The outlook is promising. They have taken a step forward. In my mind the taking 
of land in severalty is the first step forward. 

The committee on resolutions presented their report, which was accepted. It was 
agreed to take the resolutions up seriatim. 

In the debate following remarks were made : 

Professor PAINTER. Indian rights, as they are spoken of and insisted upon, are 
largely the right of an Indian to be an Indian. We consider the past a mistake. 
We wish now to look at him as a man. There was nothing in the old system to edu- 
cate him out of the Indian into manhood. 

Dr. BLAND. We recognized the manhood of the Indians in making treaties with 
them as political powers; we recognized their manhood in war. They have progressed 
as rapidly as we had any right to expect. They are looking forward to the time when 
they shall have lands in severalty. 

Professor PAINTER asked Dr. Bland how much property per capiia the Cherokees 
had now, and how much prior to their removal from Georgia. Had their progress 
been rapid in this. 

Miss ROBERTSON thought this a very unfortunate question. The Cherokees were 
stripped of their property at the time of their removal. They had to begin again in 
a new country discouraged, disheartened, enfeebled by diseases incident to change of 
climate, their number terribly reduced by death, and, then, when they had begun to 
regain what they had lost, came the war of the rebellion, when they were dragged into 
what they protested was a white man's fight, not theirs, but in vain. Their great 
herds of cattle went to enrich quartermasters and feed armies. Their slaves wure 
freed ; their homes burned ; they were driven forth as wanderers, until, when peace 
was made, they returned to begin again the struggle for life in a wilderness. As a 
child I remember those awful days of famine when people lived on roots and bark. 
Where the war found prosperity and plenty it left unutterable dearth and desolation, 
and had not these people possessed bravehearts they would have simply given up. That 
they have done so well as they have shows their ability. It must not be taken as a fair 
record of what they would have been in the number 'of years had they b<*sn unmo- 
lested. 

Judge WILLARD. Manhood means something in contradistinction to being under 
guardianship, it means self-control. We must go by slow, patient steps. The Indian 
has not attained that power of self-control characteristic of man hood. We must not force 
responsibility upon him. Wherever an Indian wishes to take land in severalty give 
it to him. If an Indian wants to leave the reservation let him go. 

Judge STRONG. The Indians should be dealt with as we deal with our own citizens. 
They should be allowed to sue in our courts; they should be subject to the criminal laws 
of the States. 

General ARMSTRONG. I believe the time has come to put the Indian out of swad- 
dling clothes into the garments of manhood. 

The resolutions were then adopted, as follows: 

Resolved I. That it is the sense of this conference that the rights of the Indian as a 
man should more and more prominently shape legislation for the Indians ; that land 
in severalty and full citizenship should be secured for him as rapidly as possible with 
safety; that to this end he should at once receive the full protection of our laws, 
whether on or otf his reservation, including the right to appear in court and sue in 
his own name; and that industrial and general education should be pressed upon the 
Indian by all possible means. 

Resolved II. That the bills providing for lands in severalty, protected by a trust 
title for a term of years, immediately for all Indians who are prepared so to take 
them, have our cordial support, and that we earnestly prejss upon Congress the imme- 
diate passage of this act. 

Resolved III. Inasmuch as in some of the States and Territories there are Indian 
children who are excluded from State school privileges, 

Resolved, That this conference appeals to all the States to accord the privileges of 
schools to such Indians as may reside therein, off from Indian reservations. 

Resolved IV. That we protest against the passage of any bill looking to the opening 
of the Indian Territory to general settlement and political control by white citizens of 
the United States without the consent of the Indians of said Territory and in violation 
of their treaty rights. 

Resolved V. That the reports made by the several religious bodies of the rapid prog- 
ress of the Indian toward civilization and Christianity call for renewed and enlarged 

H. Ex. 109 9 



130 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



effort on the part of all our churches in the direction of Christian education and mis- 
sion work. 

The evening session was held at the Congregational Church, and begun lt>y the Car- 
lisle students singing "America." 

The pastor of the church, Rev. Mr. Newman, led in prayer. 

General FISK. It has been the custom of the Board of Indian Commissioners for 
many years to have this day of convocation, to which they have invited the corre- 
sponding secretaries and other representatives of the various religious denominations 
who are carrying on religious or school work among the Indians. The meeting to- 
day has been of greater interest than any previous one. I wish you might all have 
been present and heard the reports from Alaska to Mexico. We thought it best to 
have this meeting, at which speeches would be made by gentlemen well acquainted 
with Indian work, but first we will have a little speech from an Indian boy. 

Luke Philips, a Nez Perc6 boy, told the story of his life. 

Dr. STRIEBY then made the following address: 

We are all happy to find that there is a determination on the part of the American 
people to educate the Indian, industrially and in the school-room. We are exceed- 
ingly happy to find the President of the United States and the Interior Department, 
as represented by Secretary Lamar, fully ready to carry out this determination. The 
question is whether there is anything else to do whether religious instruction can 
be imparted by the Government. All of us must feel the importance of religious 
instruction for the Indian. 

We have probably all read the old Oriental fable about a bad genius with a wand 
that turned the prince and the whole people into stone, and of the lady with magi- 
cal power who disenthralled them, and we can imagine how things were arranged 
afterwards between the prince and the fair lady. Now, suppose the lady, instead of 
wholly disenchanting them, had only thrown the wand upon their bodies and given 
life and muscular activity without restoring the mind; suppose she had next touched 
the intellect but not the heart, but suppose'the third and last touch had come gently 
down upon the heart, opening the fountain of life. Like the body awakened without 
the soul is the civilization of a race without its Christiauization. How is it to be 
with the Indian ? 

It is very pleasant to have the President of the United States declare that if the facts 
were known it would be found that the civilization of the Indian as it now exists is 
due largely to the efforts of Christian missionaries. This has been reiterated by Sec- 
retary Lamar. I wish there were time to prove this bj- tracing the work of mission- 
aries, beginning with Eliot and his Indian Bible ; then the May hews, laboring for five 
generations; the apostolic Brainerd in the wilds of Pennsylvania and New Jersey; then 
the Moravian Church and its wonderful work; then the Quakers with Peun and his 
associates ; and then, to skip over to later times, the work of the American Board in 
Georgia ; then to remember what our Methodist friends did from Ipwa west to the 
Pacific across to where that apostolic man, Father Wilbur, has done such a great 
work. 

But I know it is said this is not permanent; it does not last. Where are the Chris- 
tianized people? I confess for years that was a stumbling-block to my mind, but when 
I came to think more about it, I realized that Eliot's church was murdered in King 
Philip's war, all but four persons. Take the Cherokees; in nineteen places they had 
planted the Christian standard, in almost every instance to be torn away by the power 
of the sword. In some of these terrible times these Indian Christians showed the 
lovely spirit of Christ. If you could see how They bore the trials in Georgia you 
would feel no truer martyrs ever existed. 

1 have planted trees hoping to obtain fruit from them, but I did not go and uproot 
them as fast as they began to grow. How can we expect so much from a people so 
driven about. Can any man steel his heart against the stories of these people Helen 
Hunt Jackson has written ; how they bore privations and suffering ? Eleven Indians 
were taken and roasted, while in the fire one of the women said, as the flames gathered 
around her, "it as all well, dear Jesus; it is just what I expected." In the midst 
of their sorrows, agonies, privations, and death they lay claim to a place with the 
martyrs gone before. They have shown a forgiveness of spirit which proved them 
followers of Him who on the cross said, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what 
they do." 

We must finish the work for the Indian ; we must touch the heart with Christianity. 

The Carlisle students sang "Ring Bells." 

General FISK. I now have the pleasure of introducing Dr. Gates, a member of the 
Board of Indian Commissioners, and president of Rutgers College, New Jersey, who 
will speak upon " The tribe and the reservation." 

Dr. GATES. It is well, my friends, that we have before us examples of what the In- 
dian is. As you know well, most ideals differ seriously from the real objects. Those 
of you who may have formed your opinion of the Indians from the works of the Ameri- 
can author, perhaps best known on the other side of the Atlantic, will have a different 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 131 

opinion of the American Indian as he appears in Cooper's romances from that some 
of you may have formed from the newspaper editorials of certain parts of the West. 
I remember once being at a dinner party at which was present a friend of Cooper's, 
very jealous of his reputation. The question was asked him, whether an old colored 
servant of Mr. Cooper's was not the original of a similar character in one of his ro- 
mances, to which the reply was made, "Oh, no; he never had an original; he was 
purely a creation of the fancy, just as his Indians were." I suppose, to find the real 
Indian, a line must be drawn equally removed from the Western newspaper and Coop- 
er's romance. 

It has been a rather difficult thing to define the status of the Indian legally; we 
have been talking about that to-day in the conference. One Attorney- General de- 
clared that the Indian, since he was in the land, was " a domestic subject of the Gov- 
ernment." Daniel Webster, after some research, pronounced him "a perpetual resi- 
dent with diminutive rights " exceedingly diminutive in some quarters. 

The Indians are usually considered ward's of the Government, and we shall have to 
accept this till we get something better. I want to ask what kind of treatment is 
due from a Christian nation to the wards of the Government. The conscience of the 
people demands that the Indian within our boundaries shall be fairly and honestly 
treated, with a view to ultimate citizenship. It is due from a guardian to a ward that 
he not only manage the business, the funds, of the ward, but see that he receives suit- 
able education. What would be thought of a guardian who used for his own purposes 
funds for the education of his wards. Yet year after year we have called attention to 
the fact that $4,000,000 or $5,000,090 which we have agreed to use annually for Indian 
education are still in the national Treasury. We are fully able to pay this ; let it be 
used. It is not the duty of a guardian simply to feed his wards ; he should see that 
they receive such training as to become self-supporting and capable of self-control. 
Have we as a nation been a faithful guardian? Let us apply this test: What is our 
duty as guardian towards the Indians as wards? 

When I found by tho morning papers that I had been appointed to the one office I 
have ever held, au office singular in one respect that it has no salary I devoted 
myself to trying to find out what it meant. I confess to an entire reversal of feeling. 
I began with the feeling that each tribe should continue its government, its religious 
rites, &c., that it should have a perfect right to decide whether the family or the 
tribe should be the unit. I am entirely converted from this feeling. I know there 
are some here who have not experienced this change. I have yet to meet more than 
one man I know one who has tried to learn who has not experienced this. We 
must free the Indian from the awful tyranny of the tribe, take him from the cesspool 
of the reservation. 1 believe the tribe and the reservation must go, because there is 
within our reach the magic which will give the awakening touch. I believe certain 
things have been made clear in the past. If there is stead) 7 growth toward civiliza- 
tion a people must hold the soil not en masse, but individually. The history of the 
world proves this; civilization has never advanced where lauds were held' in com- 
mon. 

Dr. Strieby asked if you could make a tree grow by constant transplanting. 

Within twelve years the Sioux have moved eight times ; nevertheless they are mak- 
ing wonderful strides forward. As fast as land becomes valuable it is taken away. 
The family must be the foundation. First of all, God writes civilization shall grow 
in the family. 

Napoleon first showed his great shrewdne c s when he said 4t lt is every man's stom- 
ach that keeps the world moving." The desire for gain is an important fact in civil- 
ization. 

The most accursed thing in our treatment of the Indians has been to keep them like 
dumb beasts driven up on certain confining limits ; we have not given healthful stim- 
ulus. There can be no true family life where property is held in common, w T here f when 
the father dies, the property is divided among the relatives instead qf being kept for the 
children. It is a sage old Irish maxim that says, " Land is a perpetual grandfather." 
So long as the land is there it holds the family together. We don't allow that through 
the tribal organization. 

Satan himself could not have devised a better plan for keeping these people down 
than the reservation system. 

I will tell you what I think we ought to do ; we ought to make the Indians over 
into citizens. As it is now we cut them off, we insulate them, we double insulate 
them with a sticky mass of half-breeds, of miserable whites, of outlaws ; double insu- 
late them with this sticky mass and expect the life-giving current to circulate. We 
make a passage for a few Christian missionaries, but why can't we reach the whole 
mass f . We must let, in civilization, we must break up the reservation. Look at these 
young men here to-night. Suppose, after five years in school, one of these young men 
had returned to the reservation on the same day that Spotted Tail, brutal murderer, 
was let loose unpunished. What would the influence of this young man on the young 



132 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

warriors be in comparison with that of the murderer ? It would be a gigantic object- 
lesson in crime. 

Let the Indian have law, such law as the white man; let him have land, land in 
severally. Then, in strict accordance with treaty, where we can, by persuasion, let 
the reservations be cut down; let the surplus land be sold: let the wise bill intro- 
duced by one whom we all delight to honor, Senator Dawes, be pressed on to passage. 

There is a simple cure for the whole Indian question. Let us take it from that oft- 
repeated quotation, " There is no good Indian but a dead Indian." My friends, if that 
saying is the consummate flower of our Christian civilization, may God forgive us. 
It'was started only as a joke. Let us take what was said by that grand hero at the 
head of the Carlisle school, " We accept this, that there is no good Indian but a dead 
Indian ; we will kill the Indian and save the Christian man." 

General Fisk then introduced two Indian boys, Henry J. Kendall, a Pueblo, of New 
Mexico, and Richard Davis, a Cheyenne, who gave an account of their life at school. 

General FISK. We will now turn from the Apache Indians to the Senate Chamber, 
and will be addressed by Senator Chace, of Rhode Island. 

Senator CHACE. When General Whittlesey asked me to come down and speak to 
you I hardly realized what I was doing. I 'have been thinking that for me to talk 
about the Indians with Captain Pratt and General Armstrong present, is like sending 
a schoolboy over to the Smithsonian Institution to teach Professor Baird about natural 
history. I asked General Whittlesey what I should talk about, and he said, "Oh, 
you will get plenty ot texts from speakers who precede you." I got one from Dr. 
Strieby about the beautiful princess. Now, if I were that princess holding the wand 
and was going to have the Indian elevated if I were that pretty girl, and had that 
wand, I would touch the white man. He "is the fellow that needs the wand. The 
trouble in settling this problem does n< t come from the Indian, but from the white 
man. At the State Department you will find, carefully preserved, an old parchment, 
the compilation of one Thomas Jefferson, which states that "all inert are born free 
and equal." It does not say, all men are born free ami equal except Indians. It says 
"all men." Upon that foundation we have laid up our great superstructure. Our 
whole judiciary system all goes back to that great principle of justice to all men. 
Every 4th of July we applaud ourselves and proclaim to the world what freemen we 
are. And yet, here are three hundred thousand people possessed of as great rights 
as those we arrogate to ourselves not one word of how we herd them together under 
the most unfavorable circumstances, how we wrest their property from them, and do 
not restrain ourselves from encroaching upon their rights. 

We must turn a considerable portion of our attention to the white man, must de- 
vise some system by which the white man, hungering for Indian, lauds, shall be re- 
strained In the Senate, to-day, we have been considering a bill concerning Sioux 
lands in DakotU. The white man stands ready to seize these lands, whether by right 
or wrong. We have, as we say, to protect the public. These people are not ready 
for citizenship, so we say. We forget the savage from the slums of Europe, who 
comes to this country and to whom we give the ballot upon his asking. We cannot 
set up the claim that the Indian is not fit for citizenship. Give the right to the bal- 
lot and it will bring its own remedy. White men must then take hold from self-de- 
fense to tit the Indian to exercise that right. The responsibility rests upon us, upon 
every man and woman, and if we continue to sin against these people a fearful judg- 
ment will, I believe, conie upon us. Our fathers had to face the great problem of 
slavery. Slavery grew and fed upon itself like a great cancer, until it was washed 
out in a sea of blood. Unless we do something for the Indian the judgment of heaven 
will be upon us. 

Some reference has been made to the Sioux bill which my friend Senator Dawes is 
endeavoring to push through. People are too prone to look to legislators as directly 
responsible for legislation. I think this is wrong. No man in either house of Congress 
dares go beyond the people who send him there. If the opinion of the people who 
send him is well formed and distinct, if he realizes his constituents expect him to do 
certain things, he will do them. It is upon you, ladies and gentlemen, ladies as well 
as gentlemen, upon whom the responsibility rests very largely. Legislation cannot 
go beyond public opinion. Public opinion is not yet sufficiently educated upon this 
question. 

General FISK. Miss Fletcher, who organized alone the forces which put a whole 
tribe of Indians upon lands of their own, held in severalty, will now speak to us about 
returned Indians. 

Miss FLETCHER. Having looked upon the faces of these boys and girls, and having 
heard ihem sing, "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty," it sets one thinking 
of their homes, that is, those plnces where they are herded, for very largely they are 
not homes; for all that President Gates has said about the reservation is true, pain- 
fully true. 

When these young men and young women have gone back to the reservation, to 
these conditions, it is worse then sending them to make bricks without straw. It is 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 133 

asking them to create bricks. There is nothing for them to do. I remember one boy 
who went back from Carlisle. His father lived in a tent, not having made the least 
advance in civilization. This poor boy did not want to hurt his parent's feelings; they 
could not understand why it should be unpleasant to him to lie on the ground, so he 
sat up the first night and the second night. The third day the father, after looking 
at the tired boy, posted over to the agent and said, "You must give nie some lumber to 
make a bed for my boy ; he can't live this way." As has been said to you, there can be 
no real family life in a teur, where the whole fa-nily are huddled together so. The 
poor boy, used to better method's, found this terribly hard. There was no work for 
him to do to earn money. What shall he do? It is a hard case. I have seen it re- 
peated over and over again. 

People talk glibly of the failure of Indian education. They say when educated In- 
dians go home they don't amount to anything; they go right back to the blanket. 
Too much stress is placed upon the blanket. Citizens' clothing means money. Indian 
garments, leggins, and shirts are simple, easily made. Coats and vests are hard to 
make ; the blanket takes the place of both. Many among the Indians prefer citizens' 
dress, but they can't get it. What is a returned studt nt to do when his clothes w r ear 
out ; he has no money to buy more, and cannot obtain any work by which to earn 
money ? 

That so small a percentage of Indian students return to Indian customs under the 
awful pressure of the reservation is indeed wonderful. 

I want to speak of a work already started, that of taking young married couples. 
The Indians marry very young", and bringing them to school together, letting them 
live in cottages, and then, when they go back after a few years' training, money is lent 
them to erect cottages upon their farms, they paying rent until in this way the 
money is returned. The experiment has already been tried and proved successful at 
this end of the line. Couples going back have been helped; one cottage has been 
built by the women of Connecticut, another is being built by the women of Washing- 
ton. 

The Government is fairly launched toward education, but there is something more 
to be done. These people must be helped to set up in life. Only by means of the 
family can you break up the tribal organization. Then comes in the leverage of prop- 
erty, individual property. I appeal to you for your interest in this matter. 

General FISK. An Indian meeting where General Armstrong is would be a failure 
without a word from him. 

General ARMSTRONG. The family is indeed the most important factor in civilization. 
The mistake in American civilization has been the entire devotion to individuality 
rather than to the family. That I believe to be the fundamental fact we must recog- 
nize in this race work. Where there is not family life there is very little basis for 
hopeful work ; the family is the foundation ; we must have that to buikLupon. I think 
every Indian school should take both sexes. We have found in our work for ihe ne- 
groes, after eighteen years' experience with this weak, sensuous race, that this is the 
better plan. It is true it is more difficult, it takes a stronger force, but it can be done, 
and done most satisfactorily, and the result of co-edacation is far more than we had 
anticipated. 

Establish the Indian in his own home and he will want lands in severally, and 
after that law. The Sioux bill and the Coke bill now before the Senate look toward 
this. God speed them both. 

If people only realized how small the work is. What are 280,000 Indians? Hovr 
little effort it would take to care for them all. 

Last year it was stated by the gentleman who introduced the Indian appropriation 
bill that the Indians who had been to Carlisle and Hampton went back to barbarism. 
Last summer we sent out two of our teachers to look up returned students. They 
report that out of about eighty only four had hopelessly fallen. About one-third to 
one-half we may estimate as not doing well, though not fallen ; not hopeless. The 
struggle for them has been terrible. These teachers found the record far more hope- 
ful than they expected. 

Captain PRATT. I had thought I would not speak here to-night ; simply let these In- 
dian youth speak for me, but as the meeting has gone on I have changed my mind. 
First, I want to say that the speeches of these boys, with the exception of the Apaches, 
are in almost, exactly their own words. These speeches were prepared at my instance 
to be delivered at the Military Service Institution on Governor's Island, at which 
General Hancock presided, and there were about three hundred Army officers present. 
I told them I wanted them to give the story of their life before coming to Carlisle, 
and their life there, their trade, farm, and school experience. 

My feeling about the Indian question is that we stand here to-day in America some- 
what in the character of heaven to sinners; the whole principle and effort is to make 
them like us. My niiud goes away back to Calvary. I think of that man of men who 
inaugurated all the principles of civilization we hold dear. I listen to his teaching, 
follow him to the last moment as he hangs upon the cross, and the two men hanging 



134 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

there on either side of him, and one who said " Lord, remember me," and the divine 
answer was, "To-day shalt thon be with me in Paradise." He took that sinful man, 
that malefactor, with him to his own home, and said, u Father, I have brought with 
111 e the first fruits." 

I think that the homes required for these Indian people are the homes of America. 
We don't want to build homes and say, "There is the place for you, stay there." We 
want to invite them here among us, and say, " Here is the place for you." I had some 
boys with me the other day in New York. I took them down to the Battery ; we saw 
Turks, Arabs, all sorts of people, worse looking men. than any Indians I ever saw. 
They come here as emigrants; we invite them to come here to become a part of us. 
The whole trouble with these 260,000 Indians is, we do not invite them to come in and 
be one of us. I said to these boys, " Now you have had some experience, down there 
at Carlisle, you just come here and go down the bay in a little boat, and hail one of 
these emigrant ships, get aboard it and tell them you just want to be brought in with 
the other emigrants. When these men in charge ask you where you come from, I don't 
like to tell you to tell a lie, but I guess you had better say from the Fejee Islands. 
Tell them you want to go down to Pennsylvania; they will let >ou go, and presently 
they will give you a paper making you a citizen, and after awhile a Congressman 
will be around asking you to vote for him." 

Senator Chace has alluded to the Declaration of Independence. I wish yon would 
read it and see how much you could apply to the United States, imagining yourself 
an Indian. As the signers of that Declaration protested against the tyranny of Eng- 
land, so might the Indians protest against the tyranny of the United States. 

I have in my pocket a copy of a letter written more than sixty years ago by a young 
Choctaw Indian, who was brought to Washington by a gentleman, who placed him in 
an educational institution, where the young man received a finished education. He 
tried to make his way in the world. An Indian could not vote. If his rights were 
infringed upon he could not resist, for he had no rights. After awhile this began to 
oppress him most terribly. This letter I have shows his sense of injustice, and yet 
his hope of better things for the Indian. That was sixty-one years ago, and we still 
propose to make them a separate people, to continue them so forever. Who is to be 
the judge ? When will the time arrive when these people can be taken in and made 
citizens? We can take in Turks and Arabs at once ; when will the time come for the 
Indian? I believe in taking these people right now. We have taken in 500,000 from 
foreign countries in a single year, but these 260,000 Indians are to be held apart for- 
ever, I suppose. People stumble over land that seems to bother them not the man, 
but property, money. It is surprising to see how soon people, after becoming inter- 
ested in the Indians, begin to talk about lands. 

From Carlisle we have sent out in six years 708 pupils. They have gone out into 
families; some, have staid two mouths, some six months, some two years. This 
young Apache boy has been out two months. 

I once handled some Indian prisoners who were bad, low fellows, always on the war T 
path. The result with them proved that you can take even old men; it is simply a 
question of a little soap and water. I had an old lady over sixty years of age take these 
hard old fellows; she taught them from the Bible, taught them such texts as "If ye 
love me keep my commandments," "God so loved the world," &c. This old man 
after his return to his people, this man who had been so great in the wars of his peo- 
ple, lay on the ground dying. He asked his wife to bring his Bible to him. He turned 
it over on his face that the good words might be next him. . 

I want to say something about the miserable half-breeds we have heard of here tcf- 
night. I think better of the half-breeds than some of you. Let me show you what 
Europe does what we don't do. There was a German who married an Indian woman 
and died, leaving some children. His mother, away over in Germany, heard of these 
children, and when she died, four years ago, she left a parfc of her property to these 
children. We have had the hardest work to keep this property out of the hands of 
sharpers. A lawyer got himself appointed guardian to these children. I found it out, 
wrote to Germany, and the money about $7,000 will come to the boy and girl. The 
boy has selected his farm in Columbia County, and says he don't care'whether he can 
vote or not, he is going to stay there. 

The United States is the place for the 260,000 Indians, not reservations. Here is 
Richard Davis. He can set7,000 emsof type a day. Wants to set 12,000. Why should 
he not go out for himself? I don't need to send any one with him. He has learned 
by being in it, to swim by being in the water over his head. 

After singing by the Indian students the meeting adjourned. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 135 

List of officers, $~c., connected with the Office of Indian Affairs, including agents, inspectors, 
and special agents, also addresses of members of the Board of Indian Commissioners. 

[Corrected to January 5, 1886.] 

JOHN D. C. ATKINS, Commissioner.. 507 Fourth street northwest. 

ALEXANDER B. UPS HAW, Chief Clerk 715 Ninth steet northwest. 

CHIEFS OF DIVISIONS. 

Finance EDMUND S. WOOG 1819 Linden street, Le Droit Park. 

Accounts SAMUEL M. YEATMAN 944 L street northwest. 

Land CHARLES A. MAXWELL 612 Q street north west. 

Files EORGE W. TERFLINGER 338 First street northeast. 

INSPECTORS AND SPECIAL AGENTS. 

Indian inspectors. 

ROBERT S. GARDNER Clarksburg, W. Va. 

ELI I ). BANNISTER La wrenceburg, Ind. 

MORRIS A. THOMAS Baltimore, Md. 

GEORGE R. PEARSONS Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

FRANK C. ARMSTRONG New Orleans, La. 

Superintendent of Indian schools. 

JOHN H. OBERLY 1228 Fourteenth street northwest. 

Special Indian agents at large. 

WILLIAM PARSONS Hartford, Conn. 

JAMES L. ROBINSON Franklin, N. C. 

HENRY HETH Richmond, Va. 

CHARLES H. DICKSON 1 Indianapolis, Ind. 

EUGENE E. WHITE Prescott, Ark. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, WITH THEIR, POST-OFFICE 

ADDRESSES. 

CLINTON B. FISK, Chairman, 3 Broad street, New York City. 

E. WHITTLESEY, Secretary, New York avenue, corner Fifteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

WILLIAM H. LYON, 48:i Broadway, New York City. 

ALBKRT K. SMILEY, New Platz, New York. 

WILLIAM MCMICHAEL, 265 Broadway, New York City. 

JOHN K. BOIES, Hudson, Mich. 

WILLIAM T. JOHNSON, Chicago, 111. 

MERRILL E. GATKS, New Brunswick, N. J. 

JOHN CHARLTON, Nyack, Rockland County, New York. 

WILLIAM H. MORGAN, Nashville, Tenn. 



136 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



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INDEX. 



' X Page. 

Abbott, Dr. Lyman .94, 116 

Allotments 9 

Agriculture 91 

American Missionary Association 45 

Arizona - 

Armstrong, General 103 125, 133 

Baptist Home Mission Board 43 

Baptist Southern Mission Board - - - 44 

Bland, Dr 127 

Board of Commissioners, report of 5 

Brooks, Hon. Erastns 76,104,111 

California 9 

Chace, Senator 132 

Charltou, John, report of 37 

Cleveland, President 3,111,113 

Dakota ..-. 10 

Da wes, Senator 86 

Elleuwood, Dr..... 119 

Episcopal Missionary Society 60 

/ Fisk, Clinton B '. 69,105,115,118,130 

Fletcher, Miss 126,127,132 

Friends ., 65,122 

Friends, Orthodox ' 66 

Gates, Merrill E 13,105,114,130 

Government and the Indians ,' 71 

Homestead and family , 30 

Idaho j. , 10 

Indian Territory T .'.. 10 

Indian a citizen 17 

Indian before the law 20 

Indian uprisings 24 

Inspection of Indian service 6 

Jackson, Dr. Sheldon . 121 

Kendall, Dr 121 

Lamar, Secretary 3,115 

Land and law 13 

Lands, Indian 71 

Lands in se veralty * 9, 29 

List of officers _____ 135 

Ludlow, Miss Helen W I 7 

Marshall, General 123 

McMichael, William 103 

Meetings 5 

Methodist Missionary Society 67 

Mohawk conference 69 

Montana 1 10 

Morgan, Senator 108 

Morgan, W. H 126 

Nevada 10 

New Mexico 10 

Oahe, Dakota 48 

Oberly, J. H 96 

Omahas 29 

Oregon 10 

Tainter, C.C 49,73,83,104,107,124 

Platform j 93 

H. Ex. 109 11 139 



140 INDEX. 



Pratt, Captain .............................................................. 133 

Presbyterian Home Mission Board ........................................... 50,120 

Presbyterian Foreign Mission Board ......................................... 53, 119 

Presbyterian Southern Mission Board ........................................ 60 

Purchasing committee ...................................................... 36 

Quinton, Mrs ................................................................ 92 

Religious societies ............................... '. .......................... 42 

Reservation system .......................................................... 32 

Resolutions . .................. .............................................. 129 

Rhoads, James E .................................................... . ..... 67,70,82 

Robertson, Miss .................... ' ......................................... 129 

San tee Agency ..... k ................................................ <. ....... 47 

Smiley, Albert K ............................ '. ........ . ..... ............. 37,69,124 

Strieby, Dr ................................................................. 123, 1 30 

Strong, Justice ..... ........................................................ . 84 

Sunderland, Dr ................................... .......................... 125 

Southern California Indians ................................................. 107 

Tribal organization .................................. ...................... 26,28 

Unitarian Association ....................................................... 123 

Washington Territory ....................................................... 11 

Whittlesey, E ............................................................ 40,75,105 

Willard, Judge .............................................................. 125 

Wisconsin ................................................... .__ ............ 10 

Woman's work for Indians ........................................... , ....... 125